The impact of perceived teacher confirmation on receiver apprehension, motivation, and learning

  title={The impact of perceived teacher confirmation on receiver apprehension, motivation, and learning},
  author={Kathleen Ellis},
  journal={Communication Education},
  pages={ - }
  • Kathleen Ellis
  • Published 1 January 2004
  • Education, Psychology
  • Communication Education
This article reports two studies on teacher confirmation. The first examined (1) students' feelings of confirmation or disconfirmation as a function of perceived teacher behaviors, and (2) whether teacher confirmation behaviors occur in hierarchically arranged clusters. Sixty-one percent of the variance in students' feelings of confirmation was attributable to perceived teacher confirmation behavior. A discernible hierarchy of confirmation behaviors failed to emerge. The second study focused on… 
A Conditional Process Analysis of the Teacher Confirmation–Student Learning Relationship
Students enter college with varying degrees of academic self-efficacy, which influences how they respond to effective teaching behaviors. Teacher confirmation is one behavior that has received
The Effect of Teacher Confirmation on Student Communication and Learning Outcomes
A live lecture experiment was conducted where teacher confirmation was manipulated (i.e., not confirming, somewhat confirming, confirming) across three college courses. After the lecture, students
Student Perceptions of Teacher Power as a Function of Perceived Teacher Confirmation
This study explored the associations among perceived teacher confirmation behaviors (i.e., demonstrating interest, responding to questions, and teaching style) and student perceptions of teacher
Examining the Correlation between University Students’ Perceived Teacher Immediacy and their Motivation
This descriptive correlational study was intended to explore the relationship between university students’ perceived teacher immediacy and their motivation. 800 students were selected from eight
Student Learning: The Influence of Instructor and Student Confirmation, Classroom Connectedness, and Self-Efficacy
Previous research demonstrated the importance of a healthy instructional environment characterized by institutional support and positivity for student learning. Furthermore, classroom climate is
Theory of planned behavior in the classroom: An examination of the instructor confirmation-interaction model
The current study utilizes the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211 Ajzen 1991) to examine an instructor confirmation-interaction model
Perceived Understanding as a Mediator of Perceived Teacher Confirmation and Students’ Ratings of Instruction
This study tested two theoretical models of perceived understanding as a potential mediator of perceived teacher confirmation and students’ ratings of instruction. Participants included 651
Confirmation and Community The Relationships between Teacher Confirmation, Classroom Community, Student Motivation, and Learning
The purpose of this study is to examine sense of classroom community as a potential mediating variable in the model of teacher communicative behaviors (teacher confirmation) to the positive student
Students' Perceived Understanding: An Alternative Measure and its Associations with Perceived Teacher Confirmation, Verbal Aggressiveness, and Credibility
Given recent questions regarding the construct validity of Cahn and Shulman's Feelings of Understanding/Misunderstanding scale, two studies were conducted to develop a low-inference, behavioral
Exploring the Relationship between Teacher Confirmation , Gender , and Student Effort in the College Classroom
The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between teacher confirmation, gender, and student effort in a sample of college students. Teacher confirmation, defined as communication from


Perceived Teacher Confirmation: The Development and Validation of an Instrument and Two Studies of the Relationship to Cognitive and Affective Learning.
This article reports an initial attempt to operationalize perceived teacher confirmation in behavioral terms and to explore relationships among perceived teacher confirmation, cognitive learning, and
The teacher‐student relationship as an interpersonal relationship
Communication skills, as defined by Burleson and Samter (1990), were examined in the teacher‐student relationship. Three questions guided this investigation: (a) with regard to effective teaching,
Power in the classroom VI: Verbal control strategies, nonverbal immediacy and affective learning
This investigation is the sixth in a series of projects designed to programmatically examine teacher power in the classroom. Recognizing that nonverbal behaviors typically provide the framework for
Perceived parental confirmation: Development and validation of an instrument
The purpose of this study was (a) to develop and validate a behavior‐oriented instrument based on the Cissna and Sieburg (1981) systemization of the confirmation construct, (b) to explore the extent
The relationship of teacher clarity and immediacy with student state receiver apprehension, affect, and cognitive learning
This study examines the relationships among receiver apprehension, teacher clarity, and teacher immediacy in the instructional context. The relationships between state receiver apprehension and
The impact of teacher immediacy on students' motivation: Is it the same for all students?
This study investigated the impact of teachers’ use of immediacy behaviors on students’ reported motivation to study over the course of a semester. Students’ state and trait motivation to study for a
The relationships among communication apprehension, immediacy and motivation to study
The relationships among students' communication apprehension, perceived teacher immediacy, and motivation were examined. Based on the known relationships between communication apprehension and
The relationships among teacher immediacy behaviors, student motivation, and learning
Two studies investigated the relationship between teacher immediacy and student state motivation and the combined impact of these factors on learning. Study One participants completed all instruments
Power in the classroom VII: Linking behavior alteration techniques to cognitive learning
The present investigation examined the relationship between use of Behavior Alteration Techniques (BATs) and student perceived cognitive learning in college classes. Arguing that BATs serve to gain
Informational reception apprehension, educational motivation, and achievement
This study explored the relationship among informational reception apprehension (IRA) factors, student motivation, and student achievement. Based on Wheeless, Preiss, and Gayle's (1997) recently