The impact of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and betel quid chewing on the risk of calcium urolithiasis.

@article{Liu2009TheIO,
  title={The impact of cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and betel quid chewing on the risk of calcium urolithiasis.},
  author={Chia-Chu Liu and Shu-Pin Huang and W B Wu and Yii-Her Chou and S. H. Juo and L Y Tsai and C. -F. Huang and Ming-tsang Wu},
  journal={Annals of epidemiology},
  year={2009},
  volume={19 8},
  pages={539-45}
}
PURPOSE To evaluate the independent and combined effects of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking and betel quid chewing on the risk of calcium urolithiasis. METHODS A total of 354 cases diagnosed with calcium urolithiasis and 354 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were recruited from Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital between June 2003 and February 2007. All subjects completed a detailed questionnaire survey and provided blood and urine samples for biochemical evaluation. RESULTS… CONTINUE READING
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