Altering the redox state of skeletal muscle by glutathione depletion increases the exercise‐activation of PGC‐1α
To ascertain whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to training-induced adaptation of skeletal muscle, we administered ROS-scavenging antioxidants (AOX; 140 mg/l of ascorbic acid, 12 mg/l of coenzyme Q10 and 1% N-acetyl-cysteine) via drinking water to 16 C57BL/6 mice. Sixteen other mice received unadulterated tap water (CON). One cohort of both groups (CON(EXE) and AOX(EXE) ) was subjected to treadmill exercise for 4 weeks (16-26 m/min, incline of 5°-10°). The other two cohorts (CON(SED) and AOX(SED) ) remained sedentary. In skeletal muscles of the AOX(EXE) mice, GSSG and the expression levels of SOD-1 and PRDX-6 were significantly lower than those in the CON(EXE) mice after training, suggesting disturbance of ROS levels. The peak power related to the body weight and citrate synthase activity was not significantly influenced in mice receiving AOX. Supplementation with AOX significantly altered the mRNA levels of the exercise-sensitive genes HK-II, GLUT-4 and SREBF-1c and the regulator gene PGC-1alpha but not G6PDH, glycogenin, FABP-3, MCAD and CD36 in skeletal muscle. Although the administration of AOX during endurance exercise alters the expression of particular genes of the ROS metabolism, it does not influence peak power or generally shift the metabolism, but it modulates the expression of specific genes of the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and PGC-1alpha within murine skeletal muscle.