The immunology of asthma

  title={The immunology of asthma},
  author={Bart N. Lambrecht and Hamida Hammad},
  journal={Nature Immunology},
Asthma is a common disease that affects 300 million people worldwide. Given the large number of eosinophils in the airways of people with mild asthma, and verified by data from murine models, asthma was long considered the hallmark T helper type 2 (TH2) disease of the airways. It is now known that some asthmatic inflammation is neutrophilic, controlled by the TH17 subset of helper T cells, and that some eosinophilic inflammation is controlled by type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) acting… 

Myeloid Cells in Asthma.

There is now an increasing armamentarium of targeted biologicals that can specifically eliminate only one myeloid cell population, like eosinophils, and it is only with those new tools that the authors will be able to fully understand the role of myeloids cells in chronic asthma in humans.

Experimental Mouse Models of Asthma and Analysis of CD4 T Cells.

Methods for establishing allergic airway disease to model asthma in adult and neonatal mice are described, along with protocols for measuring key disease parameters and quantifying and phenotyping CD4+ T cell subtypes.

An Update on Lymphocyte Subtypes in Asthma and Airway Disease

The Cytokines of Asthma.

The diverse roles of T cell subsets in asthma.

How the different subsets of T cells are involved in the different phenotypes-endotypes of asthma and how this may influence the treatment of the disease is reviewed.

Mouse Models of Asthma

A physiologically relevant model of acute allergic asthma based on sensitization and challenge with HDM extracts is described, and it is compared with the ovalbumin/alum‐induced asthma model.

Innate lymphoid cells in asthma: pathophysiological insights from murine models to human asthma phenotypes

The role of different types of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the pathogenesis of asthma inflammatory phenotypes is described by linking findings from murine asthma models with human studies to support the hypothesis that these other types of ILCs contribute to asthma pathogenesis.

Innate-like Lymphocytes and Innate Lymphoid Cells in Asthma

Findings of the functions of different subsets of innate-like lymphocytes and ILCs as important components of the innate immune system in mucosal tissues may provide clues for the treatment of asthma.

T Cells in Allergic Asthma: Key Players Beyond the Th2 Pathway

  • Beatriz Leόn
  • Biology, Medicine
    Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
  • 2017
This review discusses cell interactions leading to the initiation and maintenance of allergic Th2-type immune responses, particularly those associated with allergic asthma.



Interleukin-13: central mediator of allergic asthma.

The worldwide incidence, morbidity, and mortality of allergic asthma are increasing. The pathophysiological features of allergic asthma are thought to result from the aberrant expansion of CD4(+) T

The Complex Relationship Between Inflammation And Lung Function In Severe Asthma

It is suggested that lung compliance may be linked with cellular inflammation in the airspace, whereas T-cell-driven AHR may be associated with tissue inflammation and other pulmonary factors.

The airway epithelium in asthma

Improved understanding of the epithelium's function in maintaining the integrity of the airways and its dysfunction in asthma has provided important mechanistic insight into how asthma is initiated and perpetuated and could provide a framework by which to select new therapeutic strategies that prevent exacerbations and alter the natural course of the disease.

Epithelial interleukin-25 is a key mediator in Th2-high, corticosteroid-responsive asthma.

IL-25 measurements identify two subsets of subjects with distinct asthma phenotypes and different responses to ICS, and bronchial epithelial IL-25 expression is likely a key determinant of type 2 response activation in asthma.

Identification of an IFN-γ/mast cell axis in a mouse model of chronic asthma.

Findings identify a previously unsuspected IFN-γ/mast cell axis in the pathology of chronic allergic inflammation of the airways in mice.

T-helper type 2-driven inflammation defines major subphenotypes of asthma.

Asthma can be divided into at least two distinct molecular phenotypes defined by degree of Th2 inflammation, and Th2 cytokines are likely to be a relevant therapeutic target in only a subset of patients with asthma.

T Helper 1 Cells and Interferon γ Regulate Allergic Airway Inflammation and Mucus Production

New regulatory pathways for mucus production are identified; mucus can be induced by Th2 and non-Th2 inflammatory responses in the lung, both of which are inhibited by IFN-γ.

IL-9 governs allergen-induced mast cell numbers in the lung and chronic remodeling of the airways.

The data suggest an important role for an IL-9-MC axis in the pathology associated with chronic asthma and demonstrate that an impact on this axis could lead to a reduction in chronic inflammation and improved lung function in patients with asthma.

Role of deficient type III interferon-λ production in asthma exacerbations

Rhinoviruses are the major cause of asthma exacerbations, and asthmatics have increased susceptibility to rhinovirus and risk of invasive bacterial infections. Here we show deficient induction of