Successful twin birth following blastocyst culture of embryos derived from the immotile ejaculated spermatozoa from a patient with primary ciliary dyskinesia: A case report
A man presented with 100% immotile spermatozoa. Transmission electron microscopy showed the absence of both central tubules in all sperm tails; the nine peripheral tubules, dynein arms, radial spokes and other structures of the sperm tail were normal. Immotile cilia syndrome of the 9 + 0 tubular pattern was diagnosed. Other anomalies frequently associated with immotile cilia syndrome, such as recurrent airway infections, bronchiectases and situs inversus (Kartagener's syndrome), were not present in this case.