The illusion of control.

  title={The illusion of control.},
  author={Ellen J. Langer},
  journal={Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
  • E. Langer
  • Published 1975
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
A series of studies was conducted to elucidate a phenomenon here referred to as the "illusion of control." An illusion of control was denned as an expectancy of a personal success probability inappropriately higher than the objective probability would warrant. It was predicted that factors from skill situations (competition, choice, familiarity, involvement) introduced into chance situations cause individuals to feel inappropriately confident. In Study 1 subjects cut cards against either a… 

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