The ideal location of the male nipple-areolar complex: A pinpointing algorithm

  title={The ideal location of the male nipple-areolar complex: A pinpointing algorithm},
  author={Floyd W Timmermans and B. A.M. Jansen and Sterre E Mokken and M. H. de Heer and Kevin M Veen and Mark Bram Bouman and Margriet G. Mullender and Tim C. van de Grift},
  journal={International Journal of Transgender Health},
In the treatment of gender dysphoria, appropriate nipple-areola complex (NAC) positioning is essential for achieving a natural appearing male chest after subcutaneous mastectomy. An accurate predic... 

Figures and Tables from this paper

Long-Term Changes in Free Nipple Graft Morphology and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Gender-Affirming Mastectomies

Morphology of and satisfaction with the NACs in transgender men significantly changed over time and incorporating these differences into pre-operative counseling and surgical planning might help increase patient satisfaction.



Appropriate Location of the Nipple‐Areola Complex in Males

To study the natural location of the nippleareola complex in the normally built male, 50 nonobese men with no evidence of gynecomastia and an average age of 27.9 years were examined and a method of locating the nipple‐areolacomplex on the male chest wall was devised.

Configuration and Localization of the Nipple‐Areola Complex in Men

In cases of bilateral absence, the authors recommend creating an oval nipple‐areola complex in men, and the appropriate localization can be calculated by means of two simple equations derived from the circumference of the thorax and the length of the sternum.

Chest‐Wall Contouring in Female‐to-Male Transsexuals: Basic Considerations and Review of the Literature

The basic considerations involving reduction of breast tissue and skin excess, the proper reduction and positioning of the nipple-areola complex, the obliteration of the inframammary crease, and, where possible, the obviation of chest-wall scars are presented and discussed.

Vertical and Horizontal Coordinates of the Nipple-Areola Complex Position in Males

An easy and reliable method to determine the horizontal and vertical coordinates of the male nipples is proposed based on the recently appreciated aesthetic value of the golden number Phi (ϕ).

The Ideal Male Nipple-Areola Complex: A Critical Review of the Literature and Discussion of Surgical Techniques for Female-to-Male Gender-Confirming Surgery.

The data are inconclusive about the effects of anatomical measurements on NAC vertical and horizontal position, but areola diameter is reasonably consistent.

Chest-Wall Contouring Surgery in Female-to-Male Transsexuals: A New Algorithm

Skin excess and skin elasticity are the key factors in choosing the appropriate technique for subcutaneous mastectomy, which is reflected in the algorithm, and although the complication rate is low and patient satisfaction is high, secondary aesthetic corrections are often indicated.

Creation of an Aesthetic Male Nipple Areolar Complex in Female-to-Male Transgender Chest Reconstruction

Nipple grafting techniques presented allow for a simple and reproducible method of creating an aesthetic male NAC shape in female-to-male transgender chest reconstruction.

A Three-Step Technique for Optimal Nipple Position in Transgender Chest Masculinization.

The triple confirmation technique is an easy, reproducible method to guide the surgeon in relocation of the nipple areolar complex in the transgender population.

Shape, Position and Dimension of the Nipple Areola Complex in the Ideal Male Chest: A Quick and Simple Operating Room Technique

An anatomical study and statistical analysis support a consistent relationship between the position and shape of the NAC and the borders of the pectoral muscle and the “trick” is developed, which is easily applicable in the operating room to find the Nac position without using formulas and numbers.

Anatomical Parameters for Nipple Position and Areolar Diameter in Males

Use of anatomic parameters for nipple position and areolar diameter in males will enhance the aesthetic results of gynecomastia correction, and there is a paucity of information in the current literature pertaining to this problem.