The hygiene hypothesis in autoimmunity: the role of pathogens and commensals

  title={The hygiene hypothesis in autoimmunity: the role of pathogens and commensals},
  author={J. -F. Bach},
  journal={Nature Reviews Immunology},
The incidence of autoimmune diseases has been steadily rising. Concomitantly, the incidence of most infectious diseases has declined. This observation gave rise to the hygiene hypothesis, which postulates that a reduction in the frequency of infections contributes directly to the increase in the frequency of autoimmune and allergic diseases. This hypothesis is supported by robust epidemiological data, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Pathogens are known to be important, as autoimmune… CONTINUE READING
Highly Cited
This paper has 25 citations. REVIEW CITATIONS

From This Paper

Figures, tables, and topics from this paper.


Publications citing this paper.
Showing 1-10 of 17 extracted citations

The diabetes pandemic and associated infections: suggestions for clinical microbiology

Reviews in medical microbiology : a journal of the Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland • 2019
View 1 Excerpt

Enhanced TLR2 responses in multiple sclerosis

Clinical and experimental immunology • 2018


Publications referenced by this paper.
Showing 1-10 of 196 references

Use of antibiotics in childhood and risk of Type 1 diabetes: a population-based casecontrol study

D Knights
Nat. Microbiol • 2017