The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 encapsidation site is a multipartite RNA element composed of functional hairpin structures

@article{McBride1996TheHI,
  title={The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 encapsidation site is a multipartite RNA element composed of functional hairpin structures},
  author={M. Scott McBride and Antonito T Panganiban},
  journal={Journal of Virology},
  year={1996},
  volume={70},
  pages={2963 - 2973}
}
We analyzed the leader region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA to decipher the nature of the cis-acting E/psi element required for encapsidation of viral RNA into virus particles. Our data indicate that, for RNA encapsidation, there are at least two functional subregions in the leader region. One subregion is located at a position immediately proximal to the major splice donor, and the second is located between the splice donor and the beginning of the gag gene. This suggests… Expand
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Simian immunodeficiency virus RNA is efficiently encapsidated by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particles
TLDR
Direct examination of the RNA contents of virus particles indicated that encapsidation of this heterologous RNA is efficient, and deletion mutants in the untranslated leader region of Siv RNA indicates that only a very short region at the 5' end of the SIV RNA is needed for packaging. Expand
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 packaging signal and major splice donor region have a conserved stable secondary structure
TLDR
A potentially stable secondary structure is derived for the packaging signal region of human immunodeficiency virus strain IIIB, which encompasses the major splice donor (SD), which is found in a highly structured conserved stem-loop. Expand
Identification of the primary site of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA dimerization in vitro.
TLDR
The results support a model in which dimer formation is initiated by the annealing of the palindromic sequences, possibly by a loop-loop interaction between the two monomers, and abolish dimerization, despite the presence of the previously postulated dimer linkage structure. Expand
A double hairpin structure is necessary for the efficient encapsidation of spleen necrosis virus retroviral RNA.
TLDR
This work is the first to demonstrate, via linker‐scanning and site‐directed mutagenesis, that a specific RNA secondary structure is required for the encapsidation of retroviral RNA, and that, during packaging of SNV and MLV RNA with viral proteins from REV‐A, the encapsidated sequences are recognized largely by their secondary or tertiary structures. Expand
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TLDR
It is reported that HIV-1 RNA forms dimeric molecules and that viral nucleocapsid protein NCp15 greatly activates dimerization, and cross-linking analysis of the interactions between NC and HIV- 1 RNA shows that NC protein molecules are tightly bound to the genomic RNA dimer. Expand
Functional sites in the 5' region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA form defined structural domains.
TLDR
The conformation of the first 500 nucleotides covering the RNA leader and the 5' gag coding sequences of HIV-MAL, using chemical probing, shows the structural versatility of this region and suggests two mutually exclusive structures could modulate the different functions involving this domain. Expand
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TLDR
This work demonstrated with wild-type HIV-1 sequences that in comparison with spliced viral RNA, full-length viral genomic RNA is enriched 20-fold in virions and demonstrated significant effects on packaging of RNAs with mutations immediately preceding the first codon of gag. Expand
Packaging of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA requires cis-acting sequences outside the 5' leader region
TLDR
The presence of abundant, packageable vector RNA did not appear to interfere with encapsidation of the wild-type HIV-1 genome, suggesting that HIV- 1 RNA packaging capacity is not saturated during acute infection. Expand
Mutational analysis of the bipartite dimer linkage structure of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomic RNA.
TLDR
It is shown that single base mutations in the palindromic loop of the dimerization initiation site completely abolish Dimerization, while introduction of compensatory mutations restores the process. Expand
RNA secondary structure and binding sites for gag gene products in the 5' packaging signal of human immunodeficiency virus type 1
TLDR
Chemical and RNase accessibility mapping, coupled with computerized sequence analysis, suggested a model for psi RNA structure comprising four independent stem-loops, which revealed that RNAs corresponding to three of these hypothetical stem-Loops can each function as a independent Gag binding site and that each is bound with approximately fourfold-lower apparent affinity than the full-length psi locus. Expand
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