The human chin revisited: what is it and who has it?

  title={The human chin revisited: what is it and who has it?},
  author={Jeffrey H Schwartz and Ian Tattersall},
  journal={Journal of human evolution},
  volume={38 3},
Although the presence of a "chin" has long been recognized as unique to Homo sapiens among mammals, both the ontogeny and the morphological details of this structure have been largely overlooked. Here we point out the essential features of symphyseal morphology in H. sapiens, which are present and well-defined in the fetus at least as early as the fifth gestational month. Differences among adults in expression of these structures, particularly in the prominence of the mental tuberosity, are… 
Selection played a role in the evolution of the human chin.
  • J. Pampush
  • Biology, Psychology
    Journal of human evolution
  • 2015
The Fetal Origin of the Human Chin
A developmental sequence leading to a chin prominence during early fetal development is discovered that is very similar to that which was observed in postnatal modern humans and in chimpanzee fetuses and the evidence that the inverted-T relief is developmentally integrated with the chin prominence is provided.
Architecture of the Nasal Complex in Neanderthals: Comparison With Other Hominids and Phylogenetic Significance
A comparative overview of this region in fossil and extant large‐bodied hominoids is presented, and it is demonstrated that Neanderthals do indeed possess a configuration that is unique among hominids.
The medial pterygoid tubercle in the Atapuerca Early and Middle Pleistocene mandibles: evolutionary implications.
It is suggested that H. antecessor, the SH hominins and Neandertals shared a common ancestor in which these features appeared during the Early Pleistocene, and they should be interpreted as synapomorphies shared among different taxa.
The enduring puzzle of the human chin
A century's worth of chin hypotheses are reviewed and future research avenues that may provide greater insight into this human peculiarity are discussed.
Fetal and infant growth patterns of the mandibular symphysis in modern humans and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)
The results reveal that the symphysis is anteriorly inclined in the youngest chimpanzee fetuses but develops an increasingly vertical orientation up until birth, which could be a key event for emergence of the deciduous canine.
New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens.
A mosaic of features including facial, mandibular and dental morphology that aligns the Jebel Irhoud material with early or recent anatomically modern humans and more primitive neurocranial and endocranial morphology shows that the evolutionary processes behind the emergence of H. sapiens involved the whole African continent.
Middle cranial fossa anatomy and the origin of modern humans.
Three-dimensional morphometrics and computer reconstructions of computed tomography-scanned fossil hominids, fossil and recent modern humans and chimpanzees point to variations in the temporal lobe, which, through effects on the MCF and face, are central to the evolution of modern human facial form.
Short Faces, Big Tongues: Developmental Origin of the Human Chin
It is demonstrated that in both humans and chimpanzees, the forward displacement of the mental region derives from the arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone, in order to cope with the relative horizontal narrowing of the oral cavity.
Neurocranial evolution in modern humans: the case of Jebel Irhoud 1
A basic morphometric description and comparison of the endocast of Jebel Irhoud 1 shows that the upper parietal areas show a certain parasagittal lateral bulging, as in European Neandertals, and it seems likely that the origin of the modern human lineage may have predated theorigin of many aspects of themodern human brain.


The Origin and Evolution of the Human Dentition
The reviewer approached the problem by making an elaborate analysis of the structural “make-up” of man and of anthropoid apes, noting the kind and extent of their common heritage and the kind or extent of theStructural features peculiar to each, which therefore may be regarded as latter-day acquisitions.
Chin morphology and sexual dimorphism in the fossil hominid mandible sample from Klasies River Mouth.
This study compares the size range and chin morphology exhibited by the KRM mandibles with that of Neandertals, Upper Pleistocene humans, and recent humans to find a similarly low frequency of pronounced chins is very unlikely to be found in any recent human population.
Age at death of the Neanderthal child from Devil's Tower, Gibraltar and the implications for studies of general growth and development in Neanderthals.
If the cranial bones from Devil's Tower are associated with the dental material, as the authors believe, they indicate a remarkably precocious brain growth in this individual, which is consistent with what is known about general growth and development in Neanderthals.
A Neandertal infant from Amud Cave, Israel
A newly discovered partial skeleton of an infant from the Amud Cave, Israel, displays an array of anatomical features that help to establish its taxonomic status as Homo neanderthalcrisis: the
Significance of some previously unrecognized apomorphies in the nasal region of Homo neanderthalensis.
  • J. Schwartz, I. Tattersall
  • Geography, Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1996
The purpose of this contribution is to describe specializations of the Neanderthal internal nasal region that make them unique not only among hominids but possibly among terrestrial mammals in general as well.
A reconsideration of the Archi 1 Neandertal mandible.
A reassessment of the early last glacial immature Neandertal mandibular corpus from Archi indicates a series of features in which it closely resembles other pre-adolescent Neandertal mandibles and
Neandertal nasal structures and upper respiratory tract "specialization".
  • R. Franciscus
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1999
The anatomical basis for Schwartz and Tattersall's contentions is critically reviewed, revealing several serious problems with their analysis, including reliance on specimens with damaged, incomplete, or, in some cases, entirely absent relevant anatomy; failure to consider primary vs. secondary spatial consequences in nasal trait conceptualization; and to consider actual ranges of variation in these traits in both fossil and recent humans.
Toward distinguishing Homo neanderthalensis from Homo sapiens, and vice versa
One of the major features used to distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans (the prominence of the occipitomastoid crest) is not valid and comparative data indicating that Homo sapiens (not Neanderthal) possesses the derived character states of the vaginal and styloid processes is provided.
Species recognition in human paleontology
A re-examination of presumed Neandertal-like fossils