The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes

@article{Steppan2001TheHR,
  title={The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes},
  author={Claire M. Steppan and Shannon T. Bailey and Savitha Bhat and Elizabeth J. Brown and Ronadip R. Banerjee and Christopher M Wright and Hiralben R Patel and Rexford S. Ahima and Mitchell A. Lazar},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2001},
  volume={409},
  pages={307-312}
}
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that leads to complications including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, blindness and nerve damage. Type 2 diabetes, characterized by target-tissue resistance to insulin, is epidemic in industrialized societies and is strongly associated with obesity; however, the mechanism by which increased adiposity causes insulin resistance is unclear. Here we show that adipocytes secrete a unique signalling molecule, which we have named resistin (for resistance… 
Linking resistin, inflammation, and cardiometabolic diseases
TLDR
The role of human resistin in the pathogeneses of inflammation and obesity-related diseases is focused on and recent evidence suggests that resistin is associated with atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertension.
Resistin in Rodents and Humans
Obesity is characterized by excess accumulation of lipids in adipose tissue and other organs, and chronic inflammation associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.
Resistin and obesity-associated insulin resistance
Insulin resistance as the core defect in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • B. Goldstein
  • Medicine, Biology
    The American journal of cardiology
  • 2002
The current biology of resistin
TLDR
This review will summarize the current understanding of resistin and will attempt to provide a framework for future study of its role in rodent and human physiology.
Insulin Resistance and Insulin Sensitizers
TLDR
Fine-mapping and positional cloning of the susceptibility locus on chromosome 2 resulted in the identification of a polymorphism (UCSNP-43 G/A) in the calpain-10 gene, and in non-diabetic Pima Indians, this polymorphism was associated with insulin resistance of glucose disposal.
Implications of resistin in type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease: Impairing insulin function and inducing pro‐inflammatory cytokines
TLDR
The effects of resistin on inflammation and insulin resistance that may lead to type 2 diabetes and CAD are explored.
Role of Resistin in Inflammation, Obesity and Type2 Diabetes mellitus
TLDR
This review will place available data on resistin in the context of the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of obesity)mediated diabetes.
Associations of resistin with inflammation and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
TLDR
Resistin showed significant BMI‐dependent associations with insulin resistance and factors linked with obesity and inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes and may represent a link between obesity and insulin resistance via pro‐inflammatory pathways.
Molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance and associated diseases.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 35 REFERENCES
Leptin reverses insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus in mice with congenital lipodystrophy
TLDR
It is shown that insulin resistance in lipodystrophic mice can be overcome by a continuous systemic infusion of low doses of recombinant leptin, an effect that is not mimicked by chronic food restriction.
Role of Fatty Acids in the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance and NIDDM
TLDR
Continuously elevated levels of plasma FFAs may play a key role in the pathogenesis of NIDDM in predisposed individuals by impairing peripheral glucose utilization and by promoting hepatic glucose overproduction.
Potential Role of TNF-α in the Pathogenesis of Insulin Resistance and Type 2 Diabetes
  • D. Moller
  • Biology, Medicine
    Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism
  • 2000
Dominant negative mutations in human PPARγ associated with severe insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus and hypertension
TLDR
These findings represent the first germline loss-of-function mutations in PPARγ and provide compelling genetic evidence that this receptor is important in the control of insulin sensitivity, glucose homeostasis and blood pressure in man.
Improved insulin-sensitivity in mice heterozygous for PPAR-γ deficiency
TLDR
Results indicate that - counterintuitively - although pharmacological activation of PPAR-gamma improves insulin sensitivity, a similar effect is obtained by genetically reducing the expression levels of the receptor.
Role of leptin in the neuroendocrine response to fasting
TLDR
It is proposed that regulation of the neuroendocrine system during starvation could be the main physiological role of leptin, and preventing the starvation-induced fall in leptin with exogenous leptin substantially blunts the changes in gonadal, adrenal and thyroid axes in male mice, and prevents the starve-induced delay in ovulation in female mice.
Obesity as a medical problem
TLDR
The global epidemic of obesity results from a combination of genetic susceptibility, increased availability of high-energy foods and decreased requirement for physical activity in modern society, and should be regarded as an epidemic that threatens global well being.
Deconstructing Type 2 Diabetes
Sensitization of diabetic and obese mice to insulin by retinoid X receptor agonists
TLDR
The data suggest that the RXR:PPARγ heterodimer is a single-function complex serving as a molecular target for treatment of insulin resistance, and may provide a new and effective treatment for NIDDM.
...
...