The hitchhiker's guide to altruism: gene-culture coevolution, and the internalization of norms.

@article{Gintis2003TheHG,
  title={The hitchhiker's guide to altruism: gene-culture coevolution, and the internalization of norms.},
  author={Herbert Gintis},
  journal={Journal of theoretical biology},
  year={2003},
  volume={220 4},
  pages={
          407-18
        }
}
  • H. Gintis
  • Published 21 February 2003
  • Biology, Psychology
  • Journal of theoretical biology
An internal norm is a pattern of behavior enforced in part by internal sanctions, such as shame, guilt and loss of self-esteem, as opposed to purely external sanctions, such as material rewards and punishment. The ability to internalize norms is widespread among humans, although in some so-called "sociopaths", this capacity is diminished or lacking. Suppose there is one genetic locus that controls the capacity to internalize norms. This model shows that if an internal norm is fitness enhancing… 

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