The history of the evolution of the knowledge about the diagnosis and the pathogenetic aspects of heart failure: From the Egyptians to James Mackenzie.

  title={The history of the evolution of the knowledge about the diagnosis and the pathogenetic aspects of heart failure: From the Egyptians to James Mackenzie.},
  author={Reinaldo Bulgarelli Bestetti and Augusto Cardinalli-Neto and Luc{\'e}lio Bernardes Couto},
  journal={International journal of cardiology},
The recognition of the syndrome of heart failure (HF) dates back to the Egyptians, although it is still a mystery how they did that because they had an erroneous notion of the blood flow. Some cardinal aspects of the clinical picture of HF were associated with cardiac disease 1600 years later. Dyspnea was associated with cardiac disease in 1000 CE by Avicenna; pedal edema was associated with cardiac disease by Pawl in 1615. Lower associated dyspnea with pedal edema in 1669, and Bonet associated… Expand
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