The history of confounding

  title={The history of confounding},
  author={J. Vandenbroucke},
  journal={Sozial- und Pr{\"a}ventivmedizin},
SummaryConfounding is a basic problem of comparability-and therefore has always been present in science. Originally a plain English word, it acquired more specific meanings in epidemiologic thinking about experimental and non-experimental research. The use of the word can be traced to Fisher. The concept was developed more fully in social science research, among others by Kish. Landmark developments in epidemiology in the second half of the 20th century were by Cornfield and by Miettinen. These… Expand
History of the modern epidemiological concept of confounding
  • A. Morabia
  • Medicine
  • Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health
  • 2010
How confounding was perceived in the 18th and 19th centuries is discussed, how the concept evolved across the 20th century is reviewed, the modern definition of confounding is described and group non-comparability is the essence of confounding. Expand
The making of an epidemiological theory of bias and confounding
The history of epidemiology, as the history of the emergence and formalisation of its methods, and Vineis and Vandenbroucke (2002) demonstrate convincingly how much epidemiology has borrowed from the social sciences and adapted methods and concepts to its own needs. Expand
Aggregation of comparisons data and reversal phenomena of metrological interest
An example of counter-intuitive amalgamation effects – also known as Yule-Simpson’s “paradox” – is presented and discussed, showing how to prevent such effects by proper design of experiments. Expand
The Birth of Multicausality as the Death of Causality and Their Statistical Corollaries
The emergence of a new discipline, epidemiology, contributes to the understanding of the evolution of scientific attitudes and ideas about causality. After an initial and ancient belief in singleExpand
Comparative syllogism and counterfactual knowledge
It is shown how successful experimental designs can help to obtain correct simulations, and thus to bring us to scientifically-empirically based counterfactual knowledge. Expand
Interpretation of epidemiologic studies very often lacked adequate consideration of confounding.
Many observational studies lack satisfactory discussion of confounding bias and even when confounding bias is mentioned, authors are typically confident that it is rather irrelevant to their findings and they rarely call for cautious interpretation. Expand
Interaction – Epidemiology’s Brinkmanship
Something is missing in VanderWeele and Knol’s extensive and remarkable review of the assessment and interpretation of interactions (VanderWeele and Knol, 2015). At which point does the analysis ofExpand
The value of ignorance: Antidepressant drugs and the policies of objectivity in medicine.
This thesis explores the strategies of ignorance and uncertainty employed by UK regulators, practitioners and policymakers during the controversy over whether selective serotonin reuptake inhibitorExpand
Why evidence for the fetal origins of adult disease might be a statistical artifact: the "reversal paradox" for the relation between birth weight and blood pressure in later life.
The authors examined the effect of statistically adjusting for different correlations betweenCurrent weight and birth weight and between current weight and adult blood pressure to assess their impact on associations between birth Weight and blood pressure. Expand
Is child protective services effective
Abstract A number of studies have concluded that there is little observable connection between CPS involvement and improved outcomes for children and families. Evidence of CPS effectiveness isExpand