The history of autism

@article{Wolff2004TheHO,
  title={The history of autism},
  author={Sula Wolff},
  journal={European Child \& Adolescent Psychiatry},
  year={2004},
  volume={13},
  pages={201-208}
}
  • S. Wolff
  • Published 1 August 2004
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Abstract.Autism remains a fascinating condition, perhaps the most prolifically researched of all child psychiatric disorders. Its history yields many lessons: early accounts of possible autism are, with one exception, unclear; the greatest contributions to our understanding have come from individual clinicians and researchers; the concept and definition of the disorder have changed greatly over the years; some ideas once held with conviction, were later proved to be unfounded; and socio… 

Topics from this paper

Autism Spectrum Disorders
TLDR
Although cognitive-behavioral and social skills interventions may form the cornerstone of psychotherapy for individuals with autism, the formation of a treatment alliance remains crucial and may require a particular willingness for flexibility on the part of the therapist.
A Brief History of Autism
In the 70 years that have elapsed since the first description of infantile autism considerable progress has been made. The official recognition of the condition in 1980 stimulated further research
Autism Then and Now: Society and Science
Autism is a very complicated diagnosis, both with respect to recent discoveries on its functional genetic basis, as well as the historical path its analysis has taken. The present work takes a unique
Classification of autism and related conditions: progress, challenges, and opportunities
TLDR
The history of this evolution of conceptions of the syndrome of early infantile autism and the important potential advantages and disadvantages of changes being contemplated for DSM-5 are reviewed.
Historical perspectives on autism: its past record of discovery and its present state of solipsism, skepticism, and sorrowful suspicion.
TLDR
Historical links that have led to the current confusing and controversial situation that is encouraging some people to return to magic, mysticism, and mantics for health care, despite the amazing accumulation of progress in vaccinology over the past 2 centuries are reviewed.
[Autism and autistic disorders. Historical and current aspects].
TLDR
A historical review considers to what extent experimental psychopathological research can deepen the understanding of the disorder.
The reality of autism: On the metaphysics of disorder and diversity
ABSTRACT Typically, although it’s notoriously hard to define, autism has been represented as a biologically-based mental disorder that can be usefully investigated by biomedical science. In recent
The Evolution of Autism as a Diagnostic Concept: From Kanner to DSM-5: A commentary
In 1943, Leo Kanner described 11 children with an “inborn disturbance of affective contact” or infantile autism. His classic description has proven remarkably enduring—albeit with some modifications
Autism and Language: A Case Study of an Adolescent
The present work aims to offer a different perspective on the use of language in autism, dissociating it from a defective and pathological view. The first part of this paper will present a literature
[Autism: exploring historical psychiatric and psychological concepts].
TLDR
Insight is provided into the term's conceptual history--or, more specifically and precisely--sheds light on the expansion of theterm's scope, which has gotten to be used for more and more symptoms and phenomena.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 61 REFERENCES
The History of Ideas on Autism
The development of ideas about the nature of autism is described, covering myths and legends, accounts of individuals in the historical literature, the search for identifiable subgroups, Kanner's
Autism: An Introduction to Psychological Theory
Autism is a fascinating yet perplexing disorder that continues to intrigue researchers and clinicians studying brain and behavior. In this lucid and elegant book, Francesca Happe provides a concise
Autism: towards an integration of clinical, genetic, neuropsychological, and neurobiological perspectives.
TLDR
A partial integration of the causal processes leading to autism requires an integration across different levels of enquiry, and provides a useful strategy for identifying key research questions, the limitations of existing hypotheses, and future research directions that are likely to prove fruitful.
Practitioner review: psychological and educational treatments for autism.
  • P. Howlin
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines
  • 1998
TLDR
It is suggested that many so called "challenging" behaviours result from the child's fundamental difficulties in communication and social understanding, or from the ritualistic and obsessional tendencies that are also characteristic of autism.
Prognosis in autism: do specialist treatments affect long-term outcome?
  • P. Howlin
  • Medicine
    European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
  • 2004
TLDR
There is little evidence of any “cure” for autism, but appropriately structured programmes for education and management in the early years can play a significant role in enhancing functioning in later life.
The treatment of autistic children.
  • M. Rutter
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of child psychology and psychiatry, and allied disciplines
  • 1985
TLDR
The goals of treatment need to be decided on the basis of knowledge on the nature of autism: the reduction of rigidity/stereotypy; the elimination of non-specific maladaptive behaviours; and alleviation of family distress.
Autism in History: The Case of Hugh Blair of Borgue
List of Plates. Acknowledgements. 1. The Background to the Study. 2. The Life and Times of Hugh Blair. 3. Understanding Mental Incapacity in the Past. 4. Autism and its Relevance to the Case of High
Outcome in Adult Life for more Able Individuals with Autism or Asperger Syndrome
The paper reviews what is known about outcome in adult life for more able individuals within the autistic spectrum. Because of the problems associated with differential diagnosis, the results of
Schizoid Personality in Childhood
The aim of this chapter is to draw attention to a group of patients, not uncommonly seen in child psychiatric practice, who were diagnosed as having a schizoid personality disorder. They appear to be
The extreme male brain theory of autism
TLDR
It is suggested that two neglected dimensions for understanding human sex differences are 'empathising' and 'systemising', which can be considered as an extreme of the normal male profile of autism.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...