The history of MF59® adjuvant: a phoenix that arose from the ashes

@article{Ohagan2013TheHO,
  title={The history of MF59® adjuvant: a phoenix that arose from the ashes},
  author={D. O'hagan and G. Ott and G. Nest and R. Rappuoli and G. Giudice},
  journal={Expert Review of Vaccines},
  year={2013},
  volume={12},
  pages={13 - 30}
}
The first clinical trial of an MF59®-adjuvanted influenza vaccine (Novartis) was conducted 20 years ago in 1992. The product that emerged (Fluad®, Novartis) was licensed first in Italy in 1997 and is now licensed worldwide in 30 countries. US licensure is expected in the coming years. By contrast, many alternative adjuvanted vaccines have failed to progress. The key decisions that allowed MF59 to succeed in such a challenging environment are highlighted here and the lessons that were learned… Expand
182 Citations
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