The history and meaning of the journal impact factor.

  title={The history and meaning of the journal impact factor.},
  author={Eugene Garfield},
  volume={295 1},
IFIRST MENTIONED THE IDEA OF AN IMPACT FACTOR IN Science in 1955. With support from the National Institutes of Health, the experimental Genetics Citation Index was published, and that led to the 1961 publication of the Science Citation Index. Irving H. Sher and I created the journal impact factor to help select additional source journals. To do this we simply re-sorted the author citation index into the journal citation index. From this simple exercise, we learned that initially a core group of… 

Journal impact factor in the era of expanding literature.

The effects of the rapidly expanding literature on the impact factor over the past decade is examined and the limitations of journal impact factor for evaluating individual author's contributions are examined.

The delicate topic of the impact factor

Although even Thomson Scientific acknowledges that the impact factor has grown beyond its control and is being used in many inappropriate ways, the impact factors of journals have been used to decide whether or not authors get promoted, are given tenure or are offered a position in a department, or are awarded a grant.

The Evolving Significance and Future Relevance of the Impact Factor

The impetus to publish in high-IF scientific journals has reached a point where it has become detrimental to science, and editors for the American Society for Microbiology journals have recently decided to remove IF content from their journals’ websites so as to bring the focus back on publishing high-quality science.

Journal Impact Factors: Their relevance and their influence on society-published scientific journals

We examine the nature and temporal trends of science journal publishing, and seek to explain why some journals have higher Journal Impact Factors (JIF) than others. The investigation has implications

100 papers to read before you die.

  • J. Evers
  • Computer Science
    Human reproduction
  • 2010
Peer review helps journals to provide the type and quality of material they are aiming to publish for their specific audiences, and publishing highly cited articles will increase a journal’s impact factor, and therefore standing.

Impact versus Significance in scientific publishing

  • Medicine
    European journal of immunology
  • 2015
This year’s impact factor is the number of citations in 2014 for articles published in 2012 and 2013 in a given journal, divided by theNumber of all source articles (typically research and review articles) published in 2013 in that given journal.

Comparison of SCImago journal rank indicator with journal impact factor

Although further validation is warranted, the novel SJR indicator poses as a serious alternative to the well‐established journal IF, mainly due to its openaccess nature, larger source database, and assessment of the quality of citations.

Article-count impact factor of materials science journals in SCI database

It was found that ACIF index could be used as an alternative tool in assessing the journal quality, particularly in the case where the assessed journals had the same (equal or similar) JIF values.

Hard Impact: Journal Impact Factor and JMT

In the fall of 2008, the University of Pennsylvania Press submitted to the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) a request that JMT be evaluated for inclusion into the Web of ScienceSM, and in January of this year, JMT received word that its request for inclusion was rejected.



How well does journal 'impact' work in the assessment of papers on clinical physiology and nuclear medicine?

Although a phase of no citation was identified, which gave a lower citation factor than the journal impact factors, the citation frequency increased over time, and altogether there seems to be a good agreement between journal impact factor and overall citation frequency of papers on clinical physiology and nuclear medicine.

Bibliographic and Web citations: What is the difference?

This work compared bibliographic and Web citations to articles in 46 journals in library and information science to find that Web citations correlated significantly with both bibliographs listed in the Social Sciences Citation Index and the ISI's Journal Impact Factor.

Rank-normalized impact factor: A way to compare journal performance across subject categories

A rank normalized impact factor (rnlF) is proposed which involves use of order statistics for the complete set of journals within each JCR category and it is believed the normalization procedure provides reliable and easily interpretable values.

Is the ratio between number of citations and publications cited a true constant

The first experimental citation indexes of scientific literature were compiled almost twenty years ago. By the time we had completed the 1964 Sczknce Citu-tion Inde# (SCF'), we were aware that there

Citation analysis as a tool in journal evaluation.

In 1971, the Institute for Scientfic Information decided to undertake a systematic analysis of journal citation patterns across the whole of science and technology.

Choosing Physiology Journals.

  • E. Brodman
  • History
    Bulletin of the Medical Library Association
  • 1944
Although the Gross and Gross method has been in use for almost twenty years, the fundamental assumptions upon which the method is based have never been examined and an investigation has been undertaken to examine these assumptions.

Long-term vs. short-term journal impact: does it matter?

The first published report on journal impact factors was included in E. Garfield, I.H. Sher, and the late Irving H. Sher's American Documentation, 14[3]:195-201, July 1963.

The influence of publication delays on impact factors

SummaryBased on the convolution formula of the disturbed aging distribution (Egghe&Rousseau, 2000) and the transfer function model of the publishing delay process, we establish the transfer function

Citation indexes for science; a new dimension in documentation through association of ideas.

The uncritical citation of disputed data by a writer, whether it be deliberate or not, is a serious matter and critical notes are increasingly likely to be overlooked with the passage of time.

Do Open-Access Articles Have a Greater Research Impact?

Although many authors believe that their work has a greater research impact if it is freely available, studies to demonstrate that impact are few. This study looks at articles in four disciplines at