The historical change of brainstem glioma diagnosis and treatment: from imaging to molecular pathology and then molecular imaging

@article{Zhang2015TheHC,
  title={The historical change of brainstem glioma diagnosis and treatment: from imaging to molecular pathology and then molecular imaging},
  author={Liwei Zhang and Changcun Pan and Deling Li},
  journal={Chinese Neurosurgical Journal},
  year={2015},
  volume={1},
  pages={1-6}
}
Understanding a process from shallow to deep is necessary for controlling and even curing diseases. The history of diagnosis and treatment of brainstem gliomas vividly reflects this process. The development of neuroimaging plays a great role in tumor treatment at different periods, including the period when brainstem gliomas were regarded as an homogenous incurable disease, and currently it is considered as an entity with high heterogeneity. Presently, it is not enough to just rely on the… 
Cutting Edge Therapeutic Insights Derived from Molecular Biology of Pediatric High-Grade Glioma and Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma (DIPG)
TLDR
Unanswered questions are posed and unexplored mechanisms in pre-clinical models and clinical trial data from pHGG patients are addressed, with particular focus paid towards therapeutics targeting chromatin modifiers and other epigenetic vulnerabilities that can be exploited for pHGG therapy.
The rule of brain hematoma pressure gradient and its influence on hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage operation
TLDR
The magnitude and variation in the ‘brain-haematoma’ pressure gradient for different surgical methods significantly influence surgical procedures and effects of HICH andvantages of this approach include a high haematomas clearance rate, decreased bleeding volume, decreased operative time, reduced trauma, decreased postoperative brain oedema and improved postoperative recovery of neurological function.
Neuroendoscopic-assisted versus mini-open craniotomy for hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage: a retrospective analysis
TLDR
Neuroendoscopic-assisted and mini-open craniotomy for the treatment of HICH has the advantages of minimal trauma with good effects, and its main reason for short operation time, reduced bleeding, and high hematoma clearance rate.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 58 REFERENCES
Treatment of diffuse intrinsic brainstem gliomas: failed approaches and future strategies.
TLDR
The discussion includes a rationale for stereotactic biopsies as well as possible therapeutic options of local chemotherapy in these lesions, and recent studies in which systemic therapy was administered prior to, concomitant with, or after radiotherapy.
Surgical Outcome following Resection of Contrast-Enhanced Pediatric Brainstem Gliomas
TLDR
This case series illustrates that contrast-enhanced MRI has positive prognostic value in the management of pediatric brainstem gliomas and recommends surgical resection and pathological diagnosis of all enhancing brainstem tumors with adjuvant therapy reserved for recurrent or unresectable cases.
Differences in molecular genetics between pediatric and adult malignant astrocytomas: age matters.
TLDR
Some of the important clinical differences between pediatric and adult gliomas are discussed, with a focus on the molecular analysis of these different age groups.
Brainstem Glioma: Comparative Study of Clinico-Radiological Presentation, Pathology and Outcome in Children and Adults
TLDR
While the tumour grade was a significant factor in predicting survival in adults, in children it did not correlate with outcome, therefore, determination of the grade of a brain stem glioma may be of prognostic significance in adult patients.
Tectal Gliomas in Children: The Implications for Natural History and Management Strategy
TLDR
It was concluded that intrinsic tECTal gliomas of childhood with sizes less than 2 cm in diameter and without any tumor extension or contrast enhancement constitute a specific subgroup of tectal masses which rarely display invasive clinical behavior and should be managed conservatively.
Surgical treatment of primary midbrain gliomas.
Brainstem gangliogliomas: a retrospective series.
TLDR
The authors recommend the maximal safe resection followed by close observation without adjuvant therapy as the optimal treatment for brainstem ganglioglioma.
Focal midbrain tumors in children.
TLDR
F focal midbrain tumors in children appear to be a distinct subgroup of brain stem tumors and are very amenable to surgical resection with an excellent long-term prognosis.
Diffuse brainstem glioma in children: critical review of clinical trials.
Clinicopathological features of human brainstem gliomas
TLDR
The histopathological results were indicative of high p53 immunore activity and no IDH1 immunoreactivity related to secondary malignant change and therefore, the histopathology results were not related to primary malignant changes.
...
...