Lysine deacetylases are produced in pancreatic beta cells and are differentially regulated by proinflammatory cytokines
We studied inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs), which results in the unraveling of chromatin, facilitating increased gene expression. ITF2357, an orally active, synthetic inhibitor of HDACs, was evaluated as an anti-inflammatory agent. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), ITF2357 reduced by 50% the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) at 10 to 22 nM, the release of intracellular interleukin (IL)-1alpha at 12 nM, the secretion of IL-1beta at 12.5 to 25 nM, and the production of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) at 25 nM. There was no reduction in IL-8 in these same cultures. Using the combination of IL-12 plus IL-18, IFNgamma and IL-6 production was reduced by 50% at 12.5 to 25 nM, independent of decreased IL-1 or TNFalpha. There was no evidence of cell death in LPS-stimulated PBMCs at 100 nM ITF2357, using assays for DNA degradation, annexin V, and caspase-3/7. By Northern blotting of PBMCs, there was a 50% to 90% reduction in LPS-induced steady-state levels of TNFalpha and IFNgamma mRNA but no effect on IL-1beta or IL-8 levels. Real-time PCR confirmed the reduction in TNFalpha RNA by ITF2357. Oral administration of 1.0 to 10 mg/kg ITF2357 to mice reduced LPS-induced serum TNFalpha and IFNgamma by more than 50%. Anti-CD3-induced cytokines were not suppressed by ITF2357 in PBMCs either in vitro or in the circulation in mice. In concanavalin-A-induced hepatitis, 1 or 5 mg/kg of oral ITF2357 significantly reduced liver damage. Thus, low, nonapoptotic concentrations of the HDAC inhibitor ITF2357 reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine production in primary cells in vitro and exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in vivo.