The hippocampus and Pavlovian fear conditioning: Reply to Bast et al.

  title={The hippocampus and Pavlovian fear conditioning: Reply to Bast et al.},
  author={Stephan G. Anagnostaras and Greg D. Gale and Michael S. Fanselow},
In a recent article that appeared in Hippocampus, we reviewed findings supporting a mnemonic role for the dorsal hippocampus (DH) in Pavlovian (contextual and tone) fear conditioning (Anagnostaras et al., 2001). We also detailed a view that has emerged over the years from this work that suggests that the hippocampus plays a highly selective role in the acquisition and temporary storage of contextual representations, as opposed to a role in conditional stimulus–unconditional stimulus (CS–US… 
Hippocampal area CA1 and remote memory in rats.
A discrete lesion targeting area CA1, the sole output of the hippocampus to neocortex, was developed and tested the effects of this lesion on recent and remote memory in the watermaze task, in context fear conditioning, and in trace fear conditioning; in all three tasks, recent andRemote memory were similarly impaired after CA1 lesions.
Temporally-graded Retrograde Amnesia for Cocaine Place Preference Memories following Hippocampal Lesions
Examining the role of hippocampus in cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) memory at different time points after conditioning found that excitotoxic hippocampal lesions impaired recent, but not remote cocaine CPP memory in mice, suggesting that contextual drug-associated memory reorganizes over time, and becomes independent of the hippocampus.
Regional dissociations within the hippocampus—memory and anxiety
Recently formed context fear memories can be retrieved without the hippocampus
It is hypothesized that the retrieval deficit caused by ChR2 stimulation is due to an immediate reduction in hippocampal activity that does not provide enough time for other brain regions to compensate.
The ventral hippocampus supports a memory representation of context and contextual fear conditioning: implications for a unitary function of the hippocampus.
Data suggest that the memory for a novel context is distributed throughout the longitudinal extent of the hippocampus and that this representation helps to support contextual fear conditioning.
Dissociable effects of hippocampus lesions on expression of fear and trace fear conditioning memories in rats
The current data suggest distinct roles in fear conditioning for three regions of the hippocampus: the septal zone is required for acquisition of trace fear conditioning, a larger portion ofThe hippocampus is critical for memory retrieval, and a region including the temporal zone is needed for expression of both trace and delay fear conditioning.
The place of the hippocampus in fear conditioning.
Septal cholinergic neurons gate hippocampal output to entorhinal cortex via oriens lacunosum moleculare interneurons
It is found that acetylcholine suppresses the hippocampus–entorhinal cortex pathway, which is the gateway to the consolidation pathway, and this suggests that ACh plays an important role in regulating hippocampal output to the EC by activating OLM interneurons, which are critical for the formation of hippocampus-dependent memory.


Hippocampus and contextual fear conditioning: Recent controversies and advances
The data support a specific mnemonic role for the DH in the acquisition and consolidation of contextual representations, and a more complete description of the hippocampus' proposed role in contextual fear is offered, along with new data supporting this view.
Temporally Graded Retrograde Amnesia of Contextual Fear after Hippocampal Damage in Rats: Within-Subjects Examination
We have shown previously that electrolytic lesions of the dorsal hippocampus (DH) produce a severe deficit in contextual fear if made 1 d, but not 28 d, after fear conditioning (Kim and Fanselow,
The Amygdala and Fear Conditioning: Has the Nut Been Cracked?
Retrograde amnesia after hippocampal damage: Recent vs. remote memories in two tasks
It is shown that N‐methyl‐D‐aspartate (NMDA)‐induced hippocampal damage produced retrograde amnesia for both hidden platform and two‐choice visible platform discriminations in the Morris water task.
Auditory Thalamus, Dorsal Hippocampus, Basolateral Amygdala, and Perirhinal Cortex Role in the Consolidation of Conditioned Freezing to Context and to Acoustic Conditioned Stimulus in the Rat
TTX inactivation was performed on adult male Wistar rats having undergone CS and context fear training to build a temporal profile for the post-training processing of fear memories in structures known to be important for this form of learning.
Hippocampal Inactivation Disrupts Contextual Retrieval of Fear Memory after Extinction
Findings from other behavioral paradigms are extended and provided additional support for a role for the hippocampus in contextual memory retrieval by examining the impact of reversible inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus on the context-specific expression of extinction.
NMDA processes mediate anterograde amnesia of contextual fear conditioning induced by hippocampal damage: immunization against amnesia by context preexposure.
The present experiments examined the anterograde deficit in context conditioning in rats and found that animals preexposed to the conditioning context 28 days prior to hippocampal lesioning were protected from the deficit normally produced by the lesions.
Consolidation of memory
Animal studies support the notion that information is stored in both hippocampal and extrahipocampal sites, and that retrieval from different sites involves access to different kinds of information, and help to explain why graded retrograde amnesia is sometimes seen after brain damage.
Memory and the hippocampus: a synthesis from findings with rats, monkeys, and humans.
  • L. Squire
  • Biology, Psychology
    Psychological review
  • 1992
The role of the hippocampus is considered, which is needed temporarily to bind together distributed sites in neocortex that together represent a whole memory.
Retrograde abolition of conditional fear after excitotoxic lesions in the basolateral amygdala of rats: absence of a temporal gradient.
Results reveal that neurons in the BLA have an enduring role in the expression of conditional fear.