The hidden therapist: evidence for a central role of music in psychedelic therapy

  title={The hidden therapist: evidence for a central role of music in psychedelic therapy},
  author={Mendel Kaelen and Bruna Giribaldi and Jordan Raine and Lisa M. Evans and Christopher Timmerman and Natalie Rodriguez and Leor Roseman and Amanda Feilding and David J. Nutt and Robin Lester Carhart-Harris},
  pages={505 - 519}
AbstractRationaleRecent studies have supported the safety and efficacy of psychedelic therapy for mood disorders and addiction. Music is considered an important component in the treatment model, but little empirical research has been done to examine the magnitude and nature of its therapeutic role.ObjectivesThe present study assessed the influence of music on the acute experience and clinical outcomes of psychedelic… 

Experience of Music Used With Psychedelic Therapy: A Rapid Review and Implications.

This study examined participants' experiences of music in psychedelic therapy research to understand participants' idiosyncratic and shared responses to music during drug therapy phases to inform optimal development of flexible music protocols which enhance psychedelic therapy.

Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy—A Systematic Review of Associated Psychological Interventions

A picture is constructed of what models of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy are currently adopted in clinical research and to report on their clinical outcomes, with special attention toward therapeutic stance, degree of directiveness and the potential suggestive effects of information provided to patients.

Therapeutic Alliance and Rapport Modulate Responses to Psilocybin Assisted Therapy for Depression

Background: Across psychotherapeutic frameworks, the strength of the therapeutic alliance has been found to correlate with treatment outcomes; however, its role has never been formally assessed in a

Perspectives on psychedelic treatment and research in eating disorders: a web-based questionnaire study of people with eating disorders.

Investigation of the perspectives of people with eating disorders on the use of complementary therapies and psychedelic research and treatment finds the need for a safe, monitored environment and the patient-therapist rapport in the context of psychedelic treatment.

The Use of Music as an Adjuvant Therapy for Mental Illnesses: a Review

Evidence suggests that MT is an excellent adjuvant therapy for the treatment of mental disorders with different clinical spectrums, and experiments with a larger sample size are required to elucidate the most effective technique and treatment duration for each mental disorder.

Virtual Reality as a Moderator of Psychedelic-Assisted Psychotherapy

Psychotherapy with the use of psychedelic substances, including psilocybin, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), ketamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), has demonstrated promise in

Psychedelic psychiatry and the C-L psychiatrist: A primer

  • B. BarnettG. Greer
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry
  • 2021

Culturally informed research design issues in a study for MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for posttraumatic stress disorder

Recent research suggests that psychedelic drugs can be powerful agents of change when utilized in conjunction with psychotherapy. Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-assisted psychotherapy has been

Psychedelic Treatments for Psychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review and Thematic Synthesis of Patient Experiences in Qualitative Studies

It is demonstrated how qualitative research of psychedelic treatments can contribute to distinguishing specific features of specific substances, and carry otherwise undiscovered implications for the treatment of specific psychiatric disorders.

Future Directions for Clinical Psychedelic Research: The Relaxed Symptom Network

Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that psilocybin may have strong antidepressant effects, and may be effective in the treatment of depressive disorders when embedded in a psychotherapeutic



Qualitative and Quantitative Features of Music Reported to Support Peak Mystical Experiences during Psychedelic Therapy Sessions

An anonymous survey of individuals with extensive experience administering psilocybin or p silocybin-containing mushrooms is conducted in order to identify the features of commonly used musical selections that have been found by therapists and research staff to be supportive of mystical experiences within a pSilocybin session.

LSD enhances the emotional response to music

These findings reinforce the long-held assumption that psychedelics enhance music-evoked emotion, and provide tentative and indirect support for the notion that this effect can be harnessed in the context of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy.

Patient Experiences of Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

The psychological mechanisms of action involved in psilocybin-assisted psychotherapy are not yet well understood. Despite a resurgence of quantitative research regarding psilocybin, the current study

An interpretative phenomenological analysis of an improvisational music therapy program for cancer patients.

Recurrent themes revealed a variety of social and psychological benefits related to the experience of music therapy, such as facilitating peer support and group interaction, increasing self-confidence, relaxation, the generation of positive feelings, stress relief and feelings of enhanced communication through music.


To date, no research has been conducted on the reasons, meanings, or outcomes for adult clients who cry during music therapy sessions. Therefore, the purpose of this exploratory phenomenological

Cancer at the Dinner Table: Experiences of Psilocybin-Assisted Psychotherapy for the Treatment of Cancer-Related Distress

The psilocybin therapy helped facilitate a felt reconnection to life, a reclaiming of presence, and greater confidence in the face of cancer recurrence, and implications for theory and clinical treatment are discussed.

Implications for psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy: functional magnetic resonance imaging study with psilocybin.

Evidence that psilocybin enhances autobiographical recollection implies that it may be useful in psychotherapy either as a tool to facilitate the recall of salient memories or to reverse negative cognitive biases.

Quality of Acute Psychedelic Experience Predicts Therapeutic Efficacy of Psilocybin for Treatment-Resistant Depression

The view that the quality of the acute psychedelic experience is a key mediator of long-term changes in mental health is bolstered, as data from a clinical trial assessing psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression confirmed this.

Factor Analysis of the Mystical Experience Questionnaire: A Study of Experiences Occasioned by the Hallucinogen Psilocybin.

Initial evidence is provided of the validity, reliability, and factor structure of a 30-item scale for measuring single, hallucinogen-occasioned mystical experiences, which may be a useful tool in the scientific study of mysticism.

Patients’ Accounts of Increased “Connectedness” and “Acceptance” After Psilocybin for Treatment-Resistant Depression

It is suggested that psilocybin treatment for depression may work via paradigmatically novel means, antithetical to antidepressant medications, and some short-term talking therapies.