The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between the hemodynamic response of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and individual differences in cognitive control, as measured by a color-word interference task. Twenty-five healthy volunteers were observed through functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) while performing a modified Stroop paradigm. Mean concentration levels of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) were correlated with behavioral performance in the conflict task. Those with shorter reaction times had higher levels of oxy-Hb concentration in superior dorsolateral PFC. Our results are the first to show a positive correlation between behavioral performance and oxy-Hb levels in superior dorsolateral PFC in a cognitive conflict task. These results suggest that the availability of oxygen in the superior PFC, possibly linked to an increase in metabolism, may be related to attention level and effectiveness of cognitive control.