The halteres of the blowfly Calliphora

  title={The halteres of the blowfly Calliphora},
  author={Gerbera Nalbach},
  journal={Journal of Comparative Physiology A},
  • G. Nalbach
  • Published 1 September 1993
  • Physics, Education
  • Journal of Comparative Physiology A
The movement of the halteres during fixed flight was video recorded under stroboscopic illumination phase coupled to the wing beat. The halteres swing in a rounded triangular manner through an angle of almost 80° in vertical planes tilted backwards from the transverse plane by ca. 30° (Figs. 1, 2).The physics of the halteres are described in terms of a general formula for the force acting onto the endknob of the moving haltere during rotations and linear accelerations of the fly (Eq. 1). On the… 

The halteres of the blowfly Calliphora

Compensatory head reactions of flies to imposed body rotations in yaw, pitch and roll are quantitatively analysed and the haltere is characterized as a sense organ for maintaining equilibrium as well as a method to mimick rotational stimuli by subjecting the body of a flying fly to vibrations.

Modelling of soldier fly halteres for gyroscopic oscillations

The natural frequency along both actuation and sensing directions is estimated, a finite element model of the haltere's joint mechanism is proposed, and the significance of the haltedere's asymmetric cross-section is discussed.

Angular Rate Encoding in Haltere Feedback for Flight Stabilization of Dipteran Insects

The halteres of Dipteran insects represent a unique natural solution to inertial rate measurement. Halteres have been observed to influence both flight stability and optical stabilization of the

Significance of the Asymmetry of the Haltere: A Microscale Vibratory Gyroscope

This study brings out one specific feature—the asymmetric geometry of the haltere structure—that is not found in current vibratory gyroscope designs that will inspire new designs of MEMS gyroscopes that have elegance and simplicity of the haltedere along with the desired performance.

Modeling Strain Sensing by the Gyroscopic Halteres, in the Dipteran Soldier Fly, Hermetia illucens

Dipteran insects are known to receive mechanosensory feedback on their aerial rotations from a pair of vibratory gyroscopic organs called halteres. Halteres are simple cantilever-like structures with

Dipteran Halteres: Perspectives on Function and Integration for a Unique Sensory Organ.

The halteres of dipteran insects (true flies) are essential mechanosensory organs for flight, and current understanding of how they move, encode forces, and transmit information about these forces to the nervous system to guide behavior is examined.

Coriolis and centrifugal forces drive haltere deformations and influence spike timing

Since local strains at the base of the haltere drive deformations of mechanosensory neurons, measured neural encoding mechanisms with structural analyses are combined to predict the spatial and temporal patterns of neural activity and show the viability for timing-based encoding of fly body rotations by halteres.

A neural basis for gyroscopic force measurement in the halteres of Holorusia

Directional sensitivity, coupled with precise, high-speed encoding, suggests that haltere afferents are capable of providing information about forces occurring at the haltere base, including Coriolis forces.

Gaze characteristics of freely walking blowflies Calliphora vicina in a goal-directed task

This work proposes a hypothesis that explains how rotation-independent translatory image flow containing distance information can be determined, and proposes an algorithm that works without requiring differentiation at the behavioral level of the rotational and translational flow components.

Haltere mechanosensory influence on tethered flight behavior in Drosophila

Fly mechanosensory organs influence wing-steering responses toVisual stimuli in a context-dependent way to modulate responses to visual motion, suggesting that the haltere mass is influential in wide-field stabilization, but less so in figure tracking.



The gyroscopic mechanism of the halteres of Diptera

  • J. Pringle
  • Engineering
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
  • 1948
The paper gives a detailed anatomical, dynamical and physiological analysis of the gyroscopic mechanism of the halteres of the higher Diptera. (1) A re-examination has been made of the structure of

The gear change mechanism of the blowfly (Calliphora erythrocephala) in tethered flight

  • G. Nalbach
  • Biology
    Journal of Comparative Physiology A
  • 2004
The radial stop (RS) never contacts the pleural wing process (PWP) during the upper turning of the wing, in contradiction to Pfau's models (1973, 1985, 1987) of the gear change mechanism.

Head Movements in Flies ( Calliphora ) Produced by Deflexion of the Halteres

Behavioural observations of walking flies show that the presence or absence of halteres has a small but nevertheless significant effect on the animals9 ability to detect angular accelerations during walking or to orient with respect to gravity.

Compensatory head roll in the blowfly Calliphora during flight

Video records were made of the blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala L. mainly during tethered flight in a wind-tunnel, to study its movements about the longitudinal body axis (roll), and the limits of fly vision and the advantages of compensatory head movements for different visually guided behaviour are discussed.

Mechanosensory control of compensatory head roll during flight in the blowflyCalliphora erythrocephala Meig.

In the blowflyCalliphora flying stationarily in a wind tunnel, compensatory head movements were elicited by rolling the fly about its longitudinal axis, and the role of resilience of the neck skeleton, and that of different neck sense organs are discussed.

Strepsipteran forewings are haltere-like organs of equilibrium

It is shown for the first time conclusively that the specialized forewings in male Strepsiptera play the same role as halteres in flies, similar to vestibular organs of vertebrates, crabs, and cephalopods.

Angular acceleration, compensatory head movements and the halteres of flies (Lucilia serricata)

  • D. Sandeman
  • Biology
    Journal of comparative physiology
  • 2004
Analysis of the photographs shows that the wing movements act to counter the imposed angular accelerations and that during sinusoidal oscillations about the vertical axis, head turns are in antiphase with angular acceleration.

How does lateral abdomen deflection contribute to flight control ofDrosophila melanogaster?

  • J. Zanker
  • Biology
    Journal of Comparative Physiology A
  • 2005
The relevance of lateral abdomen deflections for flight control is analysed and the notion of a combined yaw motor output is supported.

Biological Sciences: Halteres of Flies as Gyroscopic Organs of Equilibrium

During flight the halteres are vibrated rapidly through an arc of about 90° in the vertical plane with a frequency which is almost certainly identical with that of the wing beat.

Structure and kinematics of the prosternal organs and their influence on head position in the blowfly Calliphora erythrocephala Meig.

The results show that the prosternal organs of Calliphora sense pitch and roll turns of the fly's head, and control at least its roll position.