The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage.

@article{Bckhed2004TheGM,
  title={The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage.},
  author={Fredrik B{\"a}ckhed and Hao Ding and Ting Wang and Lora V. Hooper and Gou Young Koh and Andr{\'a}s D Nagy and Clay F. Semenkovich and Jeffrey I. Gordon},
  journal={Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
  year={2004},
  volume={101 44},
  pages={
          15718-23
        }
}
  • F. BäckhedHao Ding J. Gordon
  • Published 2 November 2004
  • Biology
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
New therapeutic targets for noncognitive reductions in energy intake, absorption, or storage are crucial given the worldwide epidemic of obesity. [] Key Result Studies of GF and conventionalized mice revealed that the microbiota promotes absorption of monosaccharides from the gut lumen, with resulting induction of de novo hepatic lipogenesis.

Figures from this paper

Mechanisms underlying the resistance to diet-induced obesity in germ-free mice

GF animals are protected from diet-induced obesity by two complementary but independent mechanisms that result in increased fatty acid metabolism: elevated levels of Fiaf, which induces Pgc-1α; and increased AMPK activity.

Increased Oral Detection, but Decreased Intestinal Signaling for Fats in Mice Lacking Gut Microbiota

Increased preference and caloric intake from fats in GF mice are associated with increased oral receptors for fats coupled with broad and marked decreases in expression of intestinal satiety peptides and fatty-acid receptors, and plasma levels of gut peptides.

Intestinal microbiota and obesity.

There is ample evidence for a role of gut microbiota in the development of obesity in rodents and the magnitude of its contribution to human obesity is still unknown.

Gut microbiota: a new path to treat obesity

Clinical evidence for a link of the gut microbiota with human obesity and obesity-related diseases is reported, molecular insights into these associations are provided, and the effect of diet and bariatric surgery on the gut bacteria, including colonic microbiota, are addressed, as a potential mechanism for promoting weight loss.

Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Microbiota: Multiple Interactions

  • H. Tilg
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of clinical gastroenterology
  • 2010
The first studies in obese and lean twins suggest that a core gut microbiome exists, and that obese individuals exhibit reduced diversity and an altered representation of metabolic pathways in their microbiota.

Perilipin-2 Modulates Lipid Absorption and Microbiome Responses in the Mouse Intestine

It is demonstrated that Plin2 modulates rapid effects of diet on fecal lipid levels, enterocyte CLD contents, and fuel utilization properties of mice that correlate with structural and functional differences in their gut microbial communities.

Impact of the Gut Microbiota on the Development of Obesity: Current Concepts

The preponderance of the evidence demonstrates that germ-free mice are protected against obesity and that the transfer of gut microbes from conventionally raised animals results in dramatic increases in body fat content and insulin resistance, and suggests that modification of the gut microbiota may be a relevant therapeutic avenue for obesity and other metabolic disorders.

A role for the gut microbiota in energy harvesting?

It is shown that obese individuals harboured a varied proportion of two prevailing phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, in comparison to lean subjects, and the obese metagenome was enriched in gene functions associated with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

Microbiota-induced obesity requires farnesoid X receptor

The results indicate that the gut microbiota promotes diet-induced obesity and associated phenotypes through FXR, and that FXR may contribute to increased adiposity by altering the microbiota composition.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 48 REFERENCES

Characterization of the Fasting-induced Adipose Factor FIAF, a Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Target Gene*

The data suggest that FIAF represents a novel endocrine signal involved in the regulation of metabolism, especially under fasting conditions, and is strongly up-regulated by fasting in white adipose tissue and liver.

Developmental regulation of intestinal angiogenesis by indigenous microbes via Paneth cells

Findings reveal a previously unappreciated mechanism of postnatal animal development, where microbes colonizing a mucosal surface are assigned responsibility for regulating elaboration of the underlying microvasculature by signaling through a bacteria-sensing epithelial cell.

Glucose and cAMP: Adversaries in the regulation of hepatic gene expression

  • H. Towle
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2001
All organisms confront intermittent periods of fasting during which energy intake is insufficient to meet energy demands. Consequently, mechanisms have evolved for synthesizing and storing energy

Gnotobiotic zebrafish reveal evolutionarily conserved responses to the gut microbiota.

Methods for producing and rearing germ-free zebrafish through late juvenile stages are developed and established as a useful model for dissecting the molecular foundations of host-microbial interactions in the vertebrate digestive tract.

Lipoprotein lipase: the regulation of tissue specific expression and its role in lipid and energy metabolism

Considering the central role of lipoprotein lipase in energy metabolism it is a reasonable goal to discover and develop new drugs that affect the tissue specific expression pattern of the enzyme.

Effects of the obese gene product on body weight regulation in ob/ob mice.

The data suggest that the OB protein regulates body weight and fat deposition through effects on metabolism and appetite.

Respiratory Uncoupling Lowers Blood Pressure Through a Leptin-Dependent Mechanism in Genetically Obese Mice

It is indicated that skeletal muscle respiratory uncoupling reverses insulin resistance and lowers blood pressure in genetic obesity without affecting thermoregulation, and it is suggested that uncoupled could decrease the risk of atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes.

Increased expression in adipocytes of ob RNA in mice with lesions of the hypothalamus and with mutations at the db locus.

  • M. MaffeiH. Fei J. Friedman
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1995
In db/db and lesioned mice, quantitative differences in expression level of ob RNA correlated with adipocyte lipid content, suggesting that both the db gene and the hypothalamus are downstream of the ob gene in the pathway that regulates adipose tissue mass.

Molecular analysis of commensal host-microbial relationships in the intestine.

Coloring germ-free mice with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron reveals that this commensal bacterium modulates expression of genes involved in several important intestinal functions, including nutrient absorption, mucosal barrier fortification, xenobiotic metabolism, angiogenesis, and postnatal intestinal maturation.

Forms of lipoprotein lipase in rat tissues: in adipose tissue the proportion of inactive lipase increases on fasting.

The results indicate that the relation between inactive (probably monomeric) and active (dimeric) forms of LPL is a target for post-translational regulation in adipose tissue.