Corpus ID: 36246726

The gut-brain barrier in major depression: intestinal mucosal dysfunction with an increased translocation of LPS from gram negative enterobacteria (leaky gut) plays a role in the inflammatory pathophysiology of depression.

@article{Maes2008TheGB,
  title={The gut-brain barrier in major depression: intestinal mucosal dysfunction with an increased translocation of LPS from gram negative enterobacteria (leaky gut) plays a role in the inflammatory pathophysiology of depression.},
  author={Michael Maes and Marta Kubera and J C Leunis},
  journal={Neuro endocrinology letters},
  year={2008},
  volume={29 1},
  pages={
          117-24
        }
}
There is now evidence that major depression (MDD) is accompanied by an activation of the inflammatory response system (IRS) and that pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipopolysacharide (LPS) may induce depressive symptoms. [...] Key Method Toward this end, the present study examines the serum concentrations of IgM and IgA against LPS of the gram-negative enterobacteria, Hafnia Alvei, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Morganella Morganii, Pseudomonas Putida, Citrobacter Koseri, and Klebsielle Pneumoniae in MDD patients and…Expand

Paper Mentions

Interventional Clinical Trial
Every human harbors complex microbial communities (collectively, the human 'microbiome') that cover the skin and the body's mucosal surfaces. There is mounting evidence of an interaction… Expand
ConditionsBipolar Depression
InterventionBiological
Increased IgA and IgM responses against gut commensals in chronic depression: further evidence for increased bacterial translocation or leaky gut.
TLDR
The findings suggest that "translocated" gut commensal bacteria activate immune cells to elicit IgA and IgM responses and that this phenomenon may play a role in the pathophysiology of (chronic) depression by causing progressive amplifications of immune pathways. Expand
In Schizophrenia, Increased Plasma IgM/IgA Responses to Gut Commensal Bacteria Are Associated with Negative Symptoms, Neurocognitive Impairments, and the Deficit Phenotype
TLDR
It is concluded that increased bacterial translocation and deficits in the compensatory immune-regulatory system (CIRS) may drive negative symptoms and neurocognitive impairments, which are hallmarks of deficit schizophrenia. Expand
Increased Serum Immunoglobulin Responses to Gut Commensal Gram-Negative Bacteria in Unipolar Major Depression and Bipolar Disorder Type 1, Especially When Melancholia Is Present
TLDR
Serum IgM/IgA responses directed to LPS of 6 Gram-negative bacteria as well as IgG responses to oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in 29 BP1, 37 BP2, 44 MDD, and 30 healthy individuals show an immune response due to the increased load of LPS while aberrations in the gut-brain axis are most pronounced in BP1 and melancholia. Expand
The role of IgG hypersensitivity and changes in gut microbiota in the pathogenesis and therapy of depressive disorders
TLDR
A possible scenario of the development of depression is presented, linking elevated zonulin production, loosening of the tight junction barrier, an increase in permeability of the gut wall, and the passage of macromolecules into the bloodstream, with the immuno-inflammatory cascade and induction of IgG-dependent food sensitivity. Expand
Prevention of gut leakiness by a probiotic treatment leads to attenuated HPA response to an acute psychological stress in rats
TLDR
The attenuation of the HPA axis response to stress by L. farciminis depends upon the prevention of intestinal barrier impairment and decrease of circulating LPS levels. Expand
The Microbiota-Gut-Immune-Glia (MGIG) Axis in Major Depression
There is robust evidence that major depression (MDD) is accompanied by a low-grade activation of the immune-inflammatory response system, which is involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. ItExpand
Bacterial translocation affects intracellular neuroinflammatory pathways in a depression-like model in rats
TLDR
A role of the translocated bacteria in the pathophysiology of depression through the p38 MAPK pathway which could aggravate the neuroinflammation and the oxidative/nitrosative damage present in this pathology is proposed. Expand
“Immune Gate” of Psychopathology—The Role of Gut Derived Immune Activation in Major Psychiatric Disorders
TLDR
The evidence and roles of numerous parameters measured in this context seem to be aftermaths of mechanisms behind immune mediated psychopathology, yet at the same time they may be contributing factors for immunemediated psychopathology. Expand
Gut Microbiota, Bacterial Translocation, and Interactions with Diet: Pathophysiological Links between Major Depressive Disorder and Non-Communicable Medical Comorbidities
TLDR
Intestinal dysbiosis and the leaky gut may constitute a key pathophysiological link between MDD and its medical comorbidities and opens relevant preventative and therapeutic perspectives. Expand
The cytokine hypothesis of depression: inflammation, oxidative & nitrosative stress (IO&NS) and leaky gut as new targets for adjunctive treatments in depression.
  • M. Maes
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Neuro endocrinology letters
  • 2008
This paper hypothesizes that inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative (IO&NS) pathways, and an increased translocation of LPS from gram-negative bacteria are causally related to depression followingExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 79 REFERENCES
Increased serum IgA and IgM against LPS of enterobacteria in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): indication for the involvement of gram-negative enterobacteria in the etiology of CFS and for the presence of an increased gut-intestinal permeability.
TLDR
Serum IgA levels were significantly correlated to the severity of illness, as measured by the FibroFatigue scale and to symptoms, such as irritable bowel, muscular tension, fatigue, concentration difficulties, and failing memory. Expand
Normalization of the increased translocation of endotoxin from gram negative enterobacteria (leaky gut) is accompanied by a remission of chronic fatigue syndrome.
TLDR
A case of a 13 year old girl with CFS who showed very high values for serum IgM against the LPS of some enterobacteria and signs of oxidative and nitrosative stress, activation of the inflammatory response system, and IgG3 subclass deficiency is reported. Expand
Evidence for an immune response in major depression: A review and hypothesis
  • Michael Maes
  • Medicine, Biology
  • Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
  • 1995
TLDR
It is hypothesized that increased monocytic production of interleukins (Il-1 beta and Il-6) in severe depression may constitute key phenomena underlying the various aspects of the immune and "acute" phase response, while contributing to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis hyperactivity, disorders in serotonin metabolism, and to the vegetative symptoms of severe depression. Expand
Environmental stress-induced gastrointestinal permeability is mediated by endogenous glucocorticoids in the rat.
BACKGROUND & AIMS Abnormal presentation of luminal constituents to the mucosal immune system, caused by dysfunction of the intestinal epithelial barrier, is a candidate theory for the cause ofExpand
The immune effects of TRYCATs (tryptophan catabolites along the IDO pathway): relevance for depression - and other conditions characterized by tryptophan depletion induced by inflammation.
TLDR
It is concluded that kynurenine, kynurenic acid, and xanthurenic Acid have anti-inflammatory effects trough a reduction of IFNgamma, whereas quinolinic acid has pro- inflammatory effects in particular via significant decreases in IL-10. Expand
Α Review on the Acute Phase Response in Major Depression
  • M. Maes
  • Medicine
  • Reviews in the neurosciences
  • 1993
TLDR
It is concluded that increased production of IL-6 and IL-1 in major depression may underlie both immune activation and the "acute" phase response in that illness, and that disorders in Hp may be related to the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of major depression. Expand
Cytokines and major depression
TLDR
Although the central effects of proinflammatory cytokines appear to be able to account for most of the symptoms occurring in depression, it remains to be established whether cytokines play a causal role in depressive illness or represent epiphenomena without major significance. Expand
Serotonin-immune interactions in detoxified chronic alcoholic patients without apparent liver disease: activation of the inflammatory response system and lower plasma total tryptophan
TLDR
Lower availability of plasma tryptophan to the brain in detoxified AWLD patients is related to activation of the IRS, and lower CC16 may be one factor predisposing chronic alcoholic patients toward infectious disorders. Expand
Relationships between interleukin-6 activity, acute phase proteins, and function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in severe depression
TLDR
Investigating whether severe depression is characterized by increased interleukin-6 (Il-6) activity and whether Il-6 production is related to altered levels of acute phase reactants and to abnormal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis found significant and positive correlations between Il- 6 activity and postdexamethasone cortisol values. Expand
An IgM-mediated immune response directed against nitro-bovine serum albumin (nitro-BSA) in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and major depression: evidence that nitrosative stress is another factor underpinning the comorbidity between major depression and CFS.
TLDR
Results indicate that both CFS and MDD are accompanied by an increased gut permeability which has allowed an exaggerated passage of BSA through a compromised epithelial barrier; increased nitrosative stress which has induced damage to BSA; and an IgM-mediated immune response directed against the nitro-BSA neoepitopes. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...