The great dry fog of 1783

  title={The great dry fog of 1783},
  author={Richard B. Stothers},
  journal={Climatic Change},
A persistent dry haze hung over Europe during the second half of 1783. Spawned by the Laki basalt fissure eruption in southern Iceland, this fog evoked much contemporary written commentary, from which the course of events is here reconstructed in a quantitative way. It was the densest European dry fog since the late Middle Ages, and it lay primarily in the troposphere. Spreading broadly toward the south and east, it nevertheless remained mostly confined to the North Atlantic, western Eurasia… Expand
Witnessing the impact of the 1783–1784 Laki eruption in the Southern Hemisphere
The Icelandic Laki eruption in 1783/1784 produced a large volume of lava while the associated aerosols were directly responsible for severe environmental and health effects in Iceland and northernExpand
The Dry Fog of 1783: Environmental Impact and Human Reaction to the Lakagígar Eruption
In the year 1783, an unusual fog covered the atmosphere over a large part of the Northern Hemisphere, persisting for a period of up to three months. In particular, the summer in Europe wasExpand
Far Reach of the Tenth Century Eldgjá Eruption, Iceland
At the end of Iceland's settlement period in the 10th century, a great basalt fissure eruption known as Eldgjá (Fire Chasm) occurred near the southern settlements and destroyed a portion of them.Expand
Climatic and Demographic Consequences of the Massive Volcanic Eruption of 1258
Somewhere in the tropics, a volcanoexploded violently during the year 1258, producing amassive stratospheric aerosol veil that eventuallyblanketed the globe. Arctic and Antarctic ice coressuggestExpand
Volcanic Dry Fogs, Climate Cooling, and Plague Pandemics in Europe and the Middle East
Dry fogs spawned by large volcanic eruptions cool the climate by partially blocking incident sunlight and perturbing atmospheric circulation patterns. The climatic and epidemiological consequences ofExpand
The anomalous winter of 1783–1784: Was the Laki eruption or an analog of the 2009–2010 winter to blame?
[1] The multi-stage eruption of the Icelandic volcano Laki beginning in June, 1783 is speculated to have caused unusual dry fog and heat in western Europe and cold in North America during the 1783Expand
Atmospheric impact of the 1783–1784 Laki Eruption: Part II Climatic effect of sulphate aerosol
Abstract. The long 1783-1784 eruption of Laki in southern Iceland, was one of the first eruptions to have been linked to an observed climate anomaly, having been held responsible for coldExpand
Atmospheric and environmental effects of the 1783-1784 Laki eruption: A review and reassessment
[1] The 1783–1784 Laki flood lava eruption in Iceland emitted ∼122 megatons (Mt) SO2 into the atmosphere and maintained a sulfuric aerosol veil that hung over the Northern Hemisphere for >5 months.Expand
Mortality in England during the 1783–4 Laki Craters eruption
Abstract1783/4 has been recognised as a mortality “crisis year” in the population history of England. This demographic incident coincides with the Laki Craters eruption, Iceland, which began in JuneExpand
Atmospheric effects in Scotland of the AD 1783–84 Laki eruption in Iceland
Daily weather diaries and meteorological records from Scotland reveal complex weather patterns following the 1783–84 fissure eruption of the Laki volcano, Iceland. Four diarists in eastern andExpand


Surface Temperature Changes Following the Six Major Volcanic Episodes between 1780 and 1980
Abstract Examined is the effect on surface temperature of the volcanic eruptions of Asama and Laki in 1783, Tambora in 1815, Coseguina in 1835, Krakatoa in 1883, Santa Maria, Soufriere and Pelee inExpand
Volcanic pollution and climate: The 1783 Laki eruption
The atmospheric impact of volcanic eruptions on the earth's climate is not simply related to the volume of erupted material, but relfects the chemistry of the magma, specifically the concentration ofExpand
Atmospheric Aerosol Loading and Transport Due to the 1783-84 Laki Eruption in Iceland, Interpreted from Ash Particles and Acidity in the GISP2 Ice Core
Abstract Glass shards from the A.D. 1783 Laki fissure eruption in Iceland have been identified in the GISP2 ice core from Summit, Greenland, at a level just preceding the major acidity/sulfate peak.Expand
The Laki and Tambora eruptions as revealed in Greenland ice cores from 11 locations
Major volcanic eruptions deposit large amounts of strong acids in polar ice. Two such volcanic eruptions are Laki, A.D. 1783, at high latitude (64 oN), and Tambora, A.D. 1815, close to the Equator (8Expand
Origins and variations of fluoride in Greenland precipitation
Summit-Greenland firn and ice core sections have been analyzed to determine the fluoride background level of high northern latitude precipitation and to investigate its temporal variations overExpand
The first ice-core record of both the Holocene and Wisconsin/Wiirm Late Glacial Stage (LGS) from the subtropics has been extracted from three ice cores to bedrock from the Dunde ice cap on theExpand
The Laki (Skaftár Fires) and Grímsvötn eruptions in 1783–1785
The Laki (Skaftár Fires) fissure eruption in southern Iceland lasted for eight months during 1783 to 1784, and produced one of the largest basaltic lava flows in historic times (14.7±1.0 km3). InExpand
Climatic impact of the A.D. 1783 Asama (Japan) Eruption was minimal: Evidence from the GISP2 Ice Core
Abstract. Assessing the climatic impact of the A,D. 1783 eruption of Mt, Asama, Japan, is complicated by the concur- rent eruption of Laki, Iceland. Estimates of the stratospheric loading of H2SO 4Expand
Volcanic dust in the atmosphere; with a chronology and assessment of its meteorological significance
  • H. Lamb
  • Geology
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1970
After defining the terms commonly used in reporting volcanic eruptions and noting previous approaches to assessment of their magnitudes, this study proceeds to examine aspects of importance, orExpand
Holocene—Late Pleistocene Climatic Ice Core Records from Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau
Three ice cores to bedrock from the Dunde ice cap on the north-central Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau of China provide a detailed record of Holocene and Wisconsin-W�rm late glacial stage (LGS) climateExpand