The graphemic/motor frontal area Exner's area revisited

@article{Roux2009TheGF,
  title={The graphemic/motor frontal area Exner's area revisited},
  author={Franck-Emmanuel Roux and Olivier Dufor and Carlo Giussani and Yannick Wamain and Louisa Draper and Marieke Longcamp and Jean-François D{\'e}monet},
  journal={Annals of Neurology},
  year={2009},
  volume={66}
}
In 1881, Exner first described a “graphic motor image center” in the middle frontal gyrus. Current psycholinguistic models of handwriting involve the conversion of abstract, orthographic representations into motor representations before a sequence of appropriate hand movements is produced. Direct cortical stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to study the human frontal areas involved in writing. 
Agraphia caused by an infarction in Exner’s area
TLDR
It is suggested that the Exner area at the base of the medial frontal gyrus plays an important role for phoneme-grapheme conversions in the cerebral writing network. Expand
Graphomotor memory in Exner’s area enhances word learning in the blind
TLDR
Functional MRI shows that in blind participants, unlike sighted participants, learning new words is associated with increased activity in Exner’s area—a part of the brain known to play a crucial role in handwriting motor memory, demonstrating the importance of writing motor memory in vocabulary learning in the blind. Expand
Contribution of writing to reading: Dissociation between cognitive and motor process in the left dorsal premotor cortex
TLDR
TMS over the PMd in relatively early time‐windows, i.e., between 60 and 160 ms after the stimulus onset, increased reaction times to pseudoword without affecting word recognition, and this result pattern was found for both printed and handwritten characters, that is, regardless of whether the characters evoked motor representations of writing actions. Expand
Unilateral Apraxic Agraphia without Ideomotor Apraxia from a callosal lesion in a patient with Marchiafava-Bignami disease
TLDR
A right-handed woman with Marchiafava Bignami disease and lesions of the genu and splenium of her corpus callosum had apraxic agraphia without ideomotor apraxia of her left, which may have led to her inability to write with her left hand. Expand
How specialized are writing-specific brain regions? An fMRI study of writing, drawing and oral spelling
TLDR
The relative lateralization and levels of activation in the superior parietal cortex, ventral premotor cortex, Ventral occipitotemporal cortex and right cerebellum across the three tasks brought out new evidence regarding their respective contributions to the writing processes. Expand
Agraphia for Kana Predominance Induced by a Cerebral Infarction Involving the Left Middle Frontal Gyrus (Exner's Area)
The foot of the left middle frontal gyrus has been considered as the site of graphemic motor image center since Sigmund Exner’s work in 1881. However, there have been only a few cases supporting theExpand
The “handwriting brain”: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies of motor versus orthographic processes
TLDR
This meta-analysis provides a description of the cerebral network of handwriting as revealed by various types of neuroimaging experiments and confirms the crucial involvement of the left frontal and superior parietal regions. Expand
The anterior superior parietal lobule and its interactions with language and motor areas during writing
TLDR
The results suggest that area PE serves as a critical interface between posterior cortical regions in the left hemisphere involved in language processing and the central motor and sensory regions that are directly involved in the control of movement. Expand
Pure agraphia after infarction in the superior and middle portions of the left precentral gyrus: Dissociation between Kanji and Kana
TLDR
It is suggested that differences in writing disturbances between Kana and Kanji letters are caused by a differential dependency on letter motor images. Expand
Functional specificity in the motor system: Evidence from coupled fMRI and kinematic recordings during letter and digit writing
TLDR
This work found a set of three regions that were more strongly activated when participants wrote letters than when they wrote digits and whose response was not explained by low‐level kinematic features of the graphic movements. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 35 REFERENCES
Lexical agraphia from focal lesion of the left precentral gyrus
TLDR
This case complements previous neuroanatomical accounts of agraphia and provides further support for the independence of neuronal systems that mediate spelling from those involved in spoken language and reading. Expand
A functional MRI study on the neural substrates for writing
TLDR
The parietal and frontal regions were considered to subserve the process of writing as separated from that of naming and finger movements, which is consistent with the classical notion mainly proposed by studies of selective writing deficits called pure agraphia. Expand
The Crucial Role of Posterior Frontal Regions in Modality Specific Components of the Spelling Process
TLDR
A network of brain regions involved in writing words, each with a separate function is proposed, which emphasizes the role of left posterior frontal regions in modality-specific output processes. Expand
Writing-specific sites in frontal areas: a cortical stimulation study.
TLDR
It is found that writing interference sites could be detected by direct cortical stimulation in dominant inferior and middle frontal gyri regardless of whether they were associated with naming or reading interference sites. Expand
Cortical language localization in left, dominant hemisphere. An electrical stimulation mapping investigation in 117 patients.
TLDR
There is a need for revision of the classical model of language localization, for it means that language cannot be reliably localized on anatomic criteria alone and a maximal resection with minimal risk of postoperative aphasia requires individual localization of language with a technique like stimulation mapping. Expand
Ipsilateral motor cortex activity during unimanual hand movements relates to task complexity.
TLDR
A control experiment revealed that strong ipsilateral activity in left motor cortex is specific to complex movements and does not depend on the number of required muscles. Expand
Different neural substrates for Kanji and Kana writing: a PET study.
TLDR
Comparisons between Kanji writing and Kana writing revealed that the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus was activated in KanjiWriting while the left angular gyruswas activated in KanaWriting, suggesting that different respective neural substrates are involved in Kanjin and KANA writing respectively. Expand
Interindividual uniformity and variety of the “Writing center”: A functional MRI study
TLDR
The aim is to investigate the neural substrates for writing using fMRI (twenty right-handed subjects) and employed Japanese phonograms (Kana), in which phoneme-grapheme conversion would be extremely simple. Expand
Hemispheric specialization for language: Brain volume matters
TLDR
Depending on the language component of interest, these results support different (yet compatible) theories on hemispheric specialization, where left specialization for comprehension could be attributed to the constraints of processing speech stimuli, while a gestural origin of language is mostly supported by the relation the authors observed betweenleft specialization for production and right-handedness. Expand
Intra-operative mapping of cortical areas involved in reading in mono- and bilingual patients.
TLDR
In bilingual patients, if common cortical areas could be found, language- and reading-specific areas were sometimes detected, lending support to the concept that bilinguals can have relatively distinct cortical representation of their language skills. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
...