The study reports a gradient in adhering to a recommended health behavior-mammography screening. Data were collected on 951 Israeli women, aged 50-74, who were mailed an invitation to a prescheduled mammography screening appointment and were later phone interviewed about their background, their other health behaviors and their health perceptions related to cancer, mammography and self-rated health. The main finding that emerged was a gradient consisting of three groups defined by their adherence to mammography screening: women who declined the invitation to undergo screening (nonattenders, 32%), women who attended a screening upon encouragement (attenders, 45%) and women who initiated the test on their own (self-screenees, 23%). This gradient was shown to be related to structural/background variables (e.g. SES, age, education, ethnicity), other health behaviors and perceptual variables related to health in general and to cancer. For example, self-screenees were of a higher SES, engaged in more health behaviors and were closer to other women who performed a mammography. An analysis carried out to discern where the difference between the three groups lied showed that it was more apparent between the self-screenees and attenders, and that the attenders and nonattenders were more similar to each other. These findings are discussed in terms of health behavior as a discrete phenomenon vs. reflecting a lifestyle. Suggestions for intervention possibilities are presented in light of the finer ranking proposed above (as opposed to the dichotomy of engaging/not engaging in a health behavior).