The golden paradox – a new heterokont lineage with chloroplasts surrounded by two membranes

  title={The golden paradox – a new heterokont lineage with chloroplasts surrounded by two membranes},
  author={Richard Wetherbee and Christopher J Jackson and Sonja I. Repetti and Lesley A. Clementson and Joana F Costa and Allison van de Meene and Simon A. Crawford and Heroen Verbruggen},
  journal={Journal of Phycology},
A marine, sand‐dwelling, golden‐brown alga is described from clonal cultures established from a high intertidal pool in southeastern Australia. This tiny, unicellular species, which we call the “golden paradox” (Chrysoparadoxa australica gen. et sp. nov.), is benthic, surrounded by a multilayered cell wall and attached to the substratum by a complex adhesive plug. Each vegetative cell gives rise to a single, naked zoospore with heterokont flagella that settles and may become briefly amoeboid… 

A new marine prasinophyte genus alternates between a flagellate and a dominant benthic stage with microrhizoids for adhesion

A sand‐dwelling, marine prasinophyte with several novel features observed in clonal cultures established from numerous locations around Australia, which changes perspective on this group of algae and illustrates that benthic habitats can be a rich ground for algal biodiscovery.

The red alga Tsunamia transpacifica (Stylonematophyceae) from plastic drift shows adaptation to its uncommon habitat in ultrastructure and soluble low molecular weight carbohydrate composition

These are the first observations on ultrastructureural details, element storage and accumulation of protective compounds are contributing to the understanding of the ultrastructural and osmotic solute basis for the ability of Tsunamia to thrive on plastic surfaces.

New pelagophytes show a novel mode of algal colony development and reveal a perforated theca that may define the class

Using fixation by high‐pressure freezing, a distinctive perforated theca was observed by TEM in all genera of this lineage, and it is hypothesize this unique covering may be the first morphological feature to characterize most, if not all, pelagophytes.

Metabolic quirks and the colourful history of the Euglena gracilis secondary plastid.

The Euglena plastid as the product of many genomes combines novel and conserved features of metabolism and transport, including uncoupling of carotenoid and phytol metabolism, a limited role in amino acid metabolism, and dual sets of the SUF pathway for FeS cluster assembly.

Proteome of the secondary plastid of Euglena gracilis reveals metabolic quirks and colourful history

The Euglena plastid is demonstrated to be a product of several genomes and to combine novel and conserved metabolism and transport processes that may be also linked to specific features of the transit peptide-like regions described here.

Olisthodiscus represents a new class of Ochrophyta

The phylogenetic diversity of Ochrophyta, a diverse and ecologically important radiation of algae, is still incompletely understood even at the level of the principal lineages. One taxon that has

Phylogeny and Evolution of the Brown Algae

This review of recent developments in the understanding of brown algal evolution based on modern advances in phylogenetics and functional genomics discusses promising avenues for future research opened by genomic datasets, directions that are expected to reveal critical insights into brownAlgae evolution in past, present, and future oceans.

There Is Treasure Everywhere: Reductive Plastid Evolution in Apicomplexa in Light of Their Close Relatives

The evolutionary history of the apicoplast is examined, plastid metabolism in Apicomplexa and their close relatives are explored, and it is proposed that the differences among reduced plastids result from a game of endosymbiotic roulette.

Further investigations on the PHAEOTHAMNIOPHYCEAE using a multigene phylogeny, with descriptions of five new species

Molecular phylogenetic analyses proved more reliable than morphological characters for distinguishing species and Evolutionary trends with the SI clade of the heterokont algae are discussed.

Olisthodiscophyceae, the 17th heterokont algal class

Following the isolation and careful observation of an alga from Niva Bugt, The Sound, Denmark, the authors of this highlighted study recognized its resemblance to Nellie Carter’s precise illustrations of Olisthodiscus luteus, suggesting the presence of multiple species in the genus Olistodiscus.



Andersenia, a genus of filamentous, sand-dwelling Pelagophyceae from southeastern Australia

A new marine pelagophyte genus, Andersenia, was described from clonal cultures established from sand samples collected in coastal tide pools from southeastern Australia, and the unusual cross walls shaped like biconcave discs were revealed and were characteristic of the genus.


Analysis of the SSU rDNA gene place the two strains as a sister group to the diatoms, as fucoxanthin is found as the major carotenoid in both lineages, suggesting that the ancestral heterokont that gave rise to thediatom lineage was probably a biflagellated unicell.

Kraftionema allantoideum, a new genus and family of Ulotrichales (Chlorophyta) adapted for survival in high intertidal pools

Phylogenetic analysis based on the nuclear‐encoded small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S) shows the early branching nature of the Kraftionema lineage among Ulotrichales, warranting its recognition as a family (Kraftionemaceae).

Schizocladia ischiensis: a new filamentous marine chromophyte belonging to a new class, Schizocladiophyceae.

A new marine filamentous chromophyte Schizocladia ischiensis sp. nov. is described from Naples, Italy, and a new class, Schizocladiophyceae, is proposed to accommodate the species based on


Based on morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular data, this alga is described as a new species and placed in a new genus, family, order, and class, and the highly unusual new species occupies an unresolved position among other chromophyte algae.

The endosymbiotic origin, diversification and fate of plastids

  • P. Keeling
  • Biology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2010
The many twists and turns of plastid evolution each represent major evolutionary transitions, and each offers a glimpse into how genomes evolve and how cells integrate through gene transfers and protein trafficking.

Protein Targeting into the Complex Plastid of Cryptophytes

It is demonstrated that one single, but conserved amino acid is the triggering key for the discrimination between nucleus-encoded plastid and periplastidal proteins.

Genome of the red alga Porphyridium purpureum

Analysis of the compact, function-rich genome of P. purpureum suggests that ancestral lineages of red algae acted as mediators of horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, thereby significantly enriching genomes across the tree of photosynthetics life.

Evolutionary genomics of the cold-adapted diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus

Insight is presented into the genome evolution of a cold-adapted diatom from the Southern Ocean, Fragilariopsis cylindrus, based on a comparison with temperate diatoms and finds that highly divergent alleles were differentially expressed across environmental conditions, including darkness, low iron, freezing, elevated temperature and increased CO2.