The glass beads of Kaitshàa and early Indian Ocean trade into the far interior of southern Africa

  title={The glass beads of Kaitsh{\`a}a and early Indian Ocean trade into the far interior of southern Africa},
  author={James R. Denbow and Carla Klehm and Laure Dussubieux},
  pages={361 - 377}
Abstract The later African Iron Age saw a shift to centralised polities, as seen in the expansion of hegemonies such as Great Zimbabwe. During this period, trade with the interior of Africa became increasingly centrally controlled. Excavations at the site of Kaitshàa, on the edge of the Makgadikgadi saltpans in Botswana, have revealed how a small settlement based on prehistoric salt trading was able to take its place in the Indian Ocean trade network before such centralised polities arose… 
Divergent patterns in Indian Ocean trade to East Africa and southern Africa between the 7th and 17th centuries CE: The glass bead evidence
Glass beads form a large part of archaeological evidence attesting to Indian Ocean trade with eastern Africa between the 7th and 17th century CE, but they have generally been under-utilized by
Zanzibar and Indian Ocean trade in the first millennium CE: the glass bead evidence
Recent archaeological excavations at the seventh- to tenth-century CE sites of Unguja Ukuu and Fukuchani on Zanzibar Island have produced large numbers of glass beads that shed new light on the
Eastern Africa and the Indian Ocean World in the First Millennium CE: The Glass Bead Evidence
The glass beads that were imported into eastern Africa in the first millennium CE have the potential to add significant detail to our understanding of eastern Africa’s interaction with the Indian
Revisiting Kalundu Mound, Zambia: Implications for the Timing of Social and Subsistence Transitions in Iron Age Southern Africa
Novel trajectories of food production, urbanism, and inter-regional trade fueled the emergence of numerous complex Iron Age polities in central and southern Africa. Renewed research and re-dating
Re-dating the Ingombe Ilede burials
Several burials excavated during 1960 at Ingombe Ilede in southern Africa were accompanied by exceptional quantities of gold and glass beads, bronze trade wire and bangles. The burials were
Baubles, Bangles and Beads: Commodity Exchange between the Indian Ocean Region and Interior Southern Africa during 8th–15th Centuries CE
When material objects are recovered in a place different from their presumed place of origin, archaeologists usually fix attention on those objects and places themselves. Material objects do not, in
Chemical analyses of glass beads from two Early Iron Age sites in Zimbabwe: Zhizo Hill and Makuru
ABSTRACT Glass beads from the East African coast obtained through the Indian Ocean trade have been known for a half-century to have been taken into the interior of southern Africa. Zhizo Hill and
New Perspectives on the Political Economy of Great Zimbabwe
This review draws from old and new archaeological data and takes interpretive flavor from indigenous African concepts to demonstrate that, within a context of local and external interfaces, Great
Fiber Spinning During the Mapungubwe Period of Southern Africa: Regional Specialism in the Hinterland
The Middle Iron Age (MIA) of southern Africa is a period characterized by increased social complexity centered on the polity of Mapungubwe. This article considers the role that fiber spinning played


The glass of Chibuene, Mozambique: New insights into early Indian ocean trade
Chibuene, southern Mozambique, is the site of the earliest-known trading port in southern Africa. Radiocarbon dates place its occupation between the 6th and 17th centuries. Recovered exotic trade
Handbook to the Iron Age : the archaeology of pre-colonial farming societies in Southern Africa
This detailed "Handbook to the Iron Age" covers the last 2000 years in Southern Africa. The first part outlines essential topics such as settlement organisation, stonewalled patterns, ritual
The Archaeology and Ethnography of Central Africa
The Archaeology and Ethnography of Central Africa provides the first detailed description of the prehistory of the Loango coast of west-central Africa over the course of more than 3000 years. The
Advent and Course of Pastoralism in the Kalahari
It has long been thought that farming and herding were comparatively recent introductions into the Kalahari and that it has been a preserve of foraging "Bushmen" for thousands of years, but fully developed pastoralism and metallurgy are now shown to have been established in the region from A.D. 500.
The social geography of pottery in Botswana as reconstructed by optical petrography
Over the last 30 years Wilmsen and Denbow have recovered and studied pottery from 28 sites in Botswana dated between ca cal AD 200 and AD 1885. Some sherds in several of these assemblages appear, on
The Archaeofauna from Xaro on the Okavango Delta in northern Botswana
We report on the fauna from the sites of Xaro 1 and Xaro 2 located on the Okavango Delta in northern Botswana. Carbon isotopes from two human graves at Xaro Lodge located approximately 500 m south of
A New Look at the Later Prehistory of the Kalahari
  • J. Denbow
  • History
    The Journal of African History
  • 1986
Until recently, the later prehistory of the Kalahari has remained almost unknown and, in consequence, the long and complex past of the peoples of this region has often been condensed into an
Ivuna: Ancient Salt-Working in Southern Tanzania
Dr. Fagan is now Associate Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara. In this article, written in collaboration with a colleague from Harvard University who joined in