The genomic signature of dog domestication reveals adaptation to a starch-rich diet

  title={The genomic signature of dog domestication reveals adaptation to a starch-rich diet},
  author={Erik Axelsson and Abhirami Ratnakumar and Maja Louise Arendt and Khurram Maqbool and Matthew T. Webster and Michele Perloski and Olof Liberg and Jon M Arnemo and {\AA}ke Hedhammar and Kerstin Lindblad-Toh},
The domestication of dogs was an important episode in the development of human civilization. The precise timing and location of this event is debated and little is known about the genetic changes that accompanied the transformation of ancient wolves into domestic dogs. Here we conduct whole-genome resequencing of dogs and wolves to identify 3.8 million genetic variants used to identify 36 genomic regions that probably represent targets for selection during dog domestication. Nineteen of these… 

Identification of genomic variants putatively targeted by selection during dog domestication

The first genome-wide analysis of the different categories of putatively functional variants that are fixed or segregating at high frequency between a global sampling of dogs and wolves finds evidence that selection has been strongest around non-synonymous variants.

Selective sweep analysis using village dogs highlights the pivotal role of the neural crest in dog domestication

It is proposed that initial selection acted on key genes in the neural crest and minor splicing pathways during early dog domestication, giving rise to the phenotypes of modern dogs.

Comparison of village dog and wolf genomes highlights the role of the neural crest in dog domestication

Signals persisting in dog genomes are used to identify genes that act early in embryogenesis and can confer phenotypes distinguishing domesticated dogs from wolves, such as tameness, smaller jaws, floppy ears, and diminished craniofacial development as the targets of selection during domestication.

Evolutionary genomics: Detecting selection

Results suggest that dogs may have found a new ecological niche, scavenging waste from human settlements established during the agricultural revolution, and modern dogs fare better than carnivorous wolves on a diet rich in starch.

Amy2B copy number variation reveals starch diet adaptations in ancient European dogs

It is suggested that selection for the increased Amy2B copy number started 7000 years cal.

Comparison of village dog and wolf genomes highlights the pivotal role of the neural crest in dog domestication

Signs persisting in the dog genome are used to identify genes and pathways altered by the intensive selective pressures of domestication and indicate that phenotypes distinguishing domesticated dogs from wolves, such as tameness, smaller jaws, floppy ears, and diminished craniofacial development, are determined by genes which act early in embryogenesis.

Convergent genomic signatures of domestication in sheep and goats

Comparing the genomes of wild Asiatic mouflon and Bezoar ibex with that of domestics from local, traditional and improved breeds finds common targets of selection related to domestication and improvement in sheep and goats.

Genomic analysis of dingoes identifies genomic regions under reversible selection during domestication and feralization

The results indicate that adaptation to domestication and feralization primarily affected different genomic regions, but that some genes, related to neurodevelopment, metabolism and reproduction, may have been reversibly affected in the two processes.

Whole genome resequencing of the Iranian native dogs and wolves to unravel variome during dog domestication

The results showed more deleterious mutations and coding sequence variants in the domestic dog genome than those in wolf genome, which contribute to understanding the genetic architecture of the dog domestication.

Genomic regions under selection in the feralization of the dingoes

The results indicate that the feralization of the dingo induced positive selection on genomic regions correlated to neurodevelopment, metabolism and reproduction, in adaptation to a wild environment.



Whole-genome resequencing reveals loci under selection during chicken domestication

The use of massively parallel sequencing is described to identify selective sweeps of favourable alleles and candidate mutations that have had a prominent role in the domestication of chickens and their subsequent specialization into broiler (meat- producing) and layer (egg-producing) chickens.

Genome-wide SNP and haplotype analyses reveal a rich history underlying dog domestication

It is shown that dog breeds share a higher proportion of multi-locus haplotypes unique to grey wolves from the Middle East, indicating that they are a dominant source of genetic diversity for dogs rather than wolves from east Asia, as suggested by mitochondrial DNA sequence data.

Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog

A high-quality draft genome sequence of the domestic dog is reported, together with a dense map of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across breeds, to shed light on the structure and evolution of genomes and genes.

Contrasting Mode of Evolution at a Coat Color Locus in Wild and Domestic Pigs

Investigation of sequence diversity at the porcine melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) locus provides evidence that wild and domestic pig (Sus scrofa) haplotypes from China and Europe are the result of strikingly different selection pressures, and that coat color variation is the results of intentional selection for alleles that appeared after the advent of domestication.

Diet and the evolution of human amylase gene copy number variation

It is found that copy number of the salivary amylase gene (AMY1) is correlated positively with salivaries protein level and that individuals from populations with high-starch diets have, on average, more AMY1 copies than those with traditionally low-st starch diets.

Studying phenotypic evolution in domestic animals: a walk in the footsteps of Charles Darwin.

  • L. Andersson
  • Biology
    Cold Spring Harbor symposia on quantitative biology
  • 2009
A major discovery made using this pedigree is the identification of a single-nucleotide substitution in intron 3 of the gene for insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) that is underlying a quantitative trait locus affecting muscle growth, size of the heart, and fat deposition.

mtDNA Data Indicate a Single Origin for Dogs South of Yangtze River, Less Than 16,300 Years Ago, from Numerous Wolves

Results indicate that the domestic dog originated in southern China less than 16,300 ya, from several hundred wolves, suggesting that the dogs may have originated among sedentary hunter-gatherers or early farmers, and the numerous founders indicate that wolf taming was an important culture trait.

The remarkable evolutionary history of the human amylase genes.

  • M. MeislerC. Ting
  • Biology
    Critical reviews in oral biology and medicine : an official publication of the American Association of Oral Biologists
  • 1993
Analysis of the structures of the human amylase genes has demonstrated that this multigene family contains at least five tandem gene copies, closely related in sequence but with distinct tissue

Estimation of population divergence times from non-overlapping genomic sequences: examples from dogs and wolves.

An approach to estimate population divergence times for non-overlapping sequence data that is based on probabilities of different genealogical topologies under a structured coalescent model is described and can be adapted to accommodate common problems such as sequencing errors and postmortem nucleotide misincorporations.

Dogs: A New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior and Evolution

The Coppingers show how characteristic shapes and behaviors arise from both genetic heritage and the environments in which pups are raised, and how both dogs and humans need to understand and adapt to the biological needs and dispositions of the authors' canine companions.