The genome sequence of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. The Xylella fastidiosa Consortium of the Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis.


Xylella fastidiosa is a fastidious, xylem-limited bacterium that causes a range of economically important plant diseases. Here we report the complete genome sequence of X. fastidiosa clone 9a5c, which causes citrus variegated chlorosis--a serious disease of orange trees. The genome comprises a 52.7% GC-rich 2,679,305-base-pair (bp) circular chromosome and two plasmids of 51,158 bp and 1,285 bp. We can assign putative functions to 47% of the 2,904 predicted coding regions. Efficient metabolic functions are predicted, with sugars as the principal energy and carbon source, supporting existence in the nutrient-poor xylem sap. The mechanisms associated with pathogenicity and virulence involve toxins, antibiotics and ion sequestration systems, as well as bacterium-bacterium and bacterium-host interactions mediated by a range of proteins. Orthologues of some of these proteins have only been identified in animal and human pathogens; their presence in X. fastidiosa indicates that the molecular basis for bacterial pathogenicity is both conserved and independent of host. At least 83 genes are bacteriophage-derived and include virulence-associated genes from other bacteria, providing direct evidence of phage-mediated horizontal gene transfer.

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@article{Simpson2000TheGS, title={The genome sequence of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. The Xylella fastidiosa Consortium of the Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis.}, author={A J Simpson and F C Reinach and P Arruda and F A Abreu and M Acencio and R Alvarenga and L M Alves and J E Araya and G S Baia and C S Baptista and M H Barros and E D Bonaccorsi and S Bordin and J M Bov{\'e} and M R Briones and M R Bueno and A A Camargo and L E Camargo and D M Carraro and H Carrer and N B Colauto and C Colombo and F F Costa and M C Costa and C M Costa-Neto and L L Coutinho and M Cristofani and E Dias-Neto and C Docena and H El-Dorry and A P Facincani and A J Ferreira and V C Ferreira and J A Ferro and J S Fraga and S C França and M C Franco and M Frohme and L R Furlan and M Garnier and G H Goldman and M H Goldman and S L Gomes and A Gruber and P L Ho and J D Hoheisel and M L Junqueira and E L Kemper and J P Kitajima and J E Krieger and E E Kuramae and F Laigret and M R Lambais and L C Leite and E G Lemos and M V Lemos and S A Lopes and C R Lopes and J A Machado and M A Machado and A M Madeira and H M Madeira and C L Marino and M V Marques and E A Martins and E M Martins and A Y Matsukuma and C F Menck and E C Miracca and C Y Miyaki and C B Monteriro-Vitorello and D H Moon and M A Nagai and A L Nascimento and L E Netto and A Nhani and F G Nobrega and L R Nunes and M A Oliveira and M C de Oliveira and R C de Oliveira and D A Palmieri and A Paris and B R Peixoto and G A Pereira and H A Pereira and J B Pesquero and R B Quaggio and P G Roberto and V Rodrigues and A J de M Rosa and V E de Rosa and R G de S{\'a} and R V Santelli and H E Sawasaki and A C da Silva and A M da Silva and F R da Silva and W A da Silva and J F da Silveira and M L Silvestri and W J Siqueira and A A de Souza and A P de Souza and M F Terenzi and D Truffi and S M Tsai and M H Tsuhako and H Vallada and M A Van Sluys and S Verjovski-Almeida and A L Vettore and M A Zago and M Zatz and J Meidanis and J C Setubal}, journal={Nature}, year={2000}, volume={406 6792}, pages={151-9} }