The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

  title={The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum},
  author={Stephen Richards and Richard A. Gibbs and George M. Weinstock and Susan J. Brown and Robin E. Denell and Richard W. Beeman and Richard A. Gibbs and Gregor Bucher and Markus Friedrich and Cornelis J. P. Grimmelikhuijzen and Martin Klingler and Marc{\'e} D. Lorenzen and Siegfried Roth and Reinhard Schr{\"o}der and Diethard Tautz and Evgeny M. Zdobnov and Donna M. Muzny and Tony Attaway and Stephanie Bell and Christian Buhay and Mimi N. Chandrabose and Dean Chavez and Kerstin P Clerk-Blankenburg and Andrew Cree and Marvin Diep Dao and Clay Davis and Joseph Chacko and Huyen Dinh and Shannon Dugan-Rocha and Gerald R. Fowler and Toni T Garner and Jeffrey Garnes and Andreas Gnirke and Alica Hawes and Judith Hernandez and Sandra Hines and Michael E. Holder and Jennifer Hume and Shalini N. Jhangiani and Vandita Joshi and Ziad Khan and Laronda R. Jackson and Christie L. Kovar and Andrea Kowis and Sandy Lee and Lora R. Lewis and Jonathan S. Margolis and Margaret B. Morgan and Lynne V. Nazareth and Ngoc Bich Nguyen and Geoffrey O. Okwuonu and David Parker and San Juana Ruiz and Jireh Santibanez and Jo{\"e}l Savard and Steven E. Scherer and Brian Schneider and Erica Sodergren and Selina Vattahil and Donna Villasana and Courtney Sherell White and Rita A. Wright and Yoonseong Park and Jeffrey C. Lord and Brenda Oppert and Sue Brown and Liangjiang Wang and George M. Weinstock and Yue Liu and Kim C. Worley and Christine G. Elsik and Justin T. Reese and Eran Elhaik and Giddy Landan and Dan Graur and Peter Arensburger and Peter W Atkinson and Jim Beidler and Jeffery P. Demuth and Douglas W. Drury and Yu-Zhou Du and Haruhiko Fujiwara and Vincenza Maselli and Mizuko Osanai and Hugh M. Robertson and Zhijian Jake Tu and Jian-jun Wang and Suzhi Wang and Henry Song and Lan Zhang and Doreen Werner and Mario Stanke and Burkhard Morgenstern and Victor V. Solovyev and P. S. Kosarev and Garth R. Brown and Hsiu-Chuan Chen and Olga D. Ermolaeva and Wratko Hlavina and Yu. L. Kapustin and Boris Kiryutin and Paul A. Kitts and Donna R. Maglott and Kim D. Pruitt and Victor Sapojnikov and Alexandre Souvorov and Aaron J. Mackey and Robert M. Waterhouse and Stefan Wyder and Evgenia V. Kriventseva and Tatsuhiko Kadowaki and Peer Bork and Manuel Aranda and Riyue Bao and Anke Beermann and Nicola Berns and Renata Bolognesi and F. Bonneton and Daniel Bopp and T Butts and Arnaud Chaumot and Robin E. Denell and David E. K. Ferrier and Cassondra M Gordon and Marek Jindra and Que Lan and H. Michael G. Lattorff and Vincent Laudet and Cornelia von Levetsow and Zhenyi Liu and Rebekka Lutz and Jeremy A. Lynch and Rodrigo Nunes da Fonseca and Nico Posnien and Rolf Reuter and Johannes B. Schinko and Christian Schmitt and Michael Schoppmeier and Teresa D. Shippy and Franck Simonnet and Henrique Marques-Souza and Yoshinori Tomoyasu and Jochen Trauner and Maurijn van der Zee and Michel Vervoort and Nadine Wittkopp and Ernst A. Wimmer and Xiaoyun Yang and Andrew K. Jones and David B. Sattelle and Paul R. Ebert and David R. Nelson and Jeffrey G. Scott and Subbaratnam Muthukrishnan and Karl J. Kramer and Yasuyuki Arakane and Qingsong Zhu and David G. Hogenkamp and Radhika Dixit and Haobo Jiang and Zhen Zou and Jeremy L. Marshall and Elena N. Elpidina and Konstantin S Vinokurov and Cris Oppert and Jay D. Evans and Zhiqiang Lu and Picheng Zhao and Niranji Sumathipala and Boran Altincicek and Andreas Vilcinskas and Michael Williams and Dan Hultmark and Charles H{\'e}tru and Frank M. Hauser and Giuseppe Cazzamali and Michael Williamson and Bin Li and Yoshiaki Tanaka and Reinhard Predel and Susanne Neupert and Joachim Schachtner and Peter Verleyen and Florian Raible and Kimberly K. O. Walden and Sergio Angeli and Sylvain For{\^e}t and Stefan Schuetz and Ryszard Maleszka and Sherry Miller and Daniela Grossmann},
Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to interact with a diverse chemical environment, as shown by large expansions in odorant and gustatory receptors, as well as P450 and other detoxification enzymes. Development in Tribolium is more… 

[When Tribolium complements the genetics of Drosophila].

This beetle allowed the identification of a new type of ecdysone receptor for holometabolous insects, and in the search for the juvenile hormone receptor, a crucial result was obtained with experiments that could be performed only with Tribolium, and not with Drosophila.

Tribolium castaneum: a model for investigating the mode of action of insecticides and mechanisms of resistance.

Recent advances in research focusing on the mode of action of insecticides and mechanisms of resistance identified using T. castaneum as a pest model are summarized.

Postgenomics of Tribolium: Targeting the endocrine regulation of diuresis

Coleopteran insects comprise a highly successful taxon, representing more than 25% of eukaryotic species, many of which are economically important, and one of these, the red flour beetle, is a major pest of stored grain and cereal products and is an excellent genetic model for the Coleoptera.

Tribolium castaneum as a model for high-throughput RNAi screening.

Several T. castaneum genes with promising RNAi phenotypes for further development as mechanisms for plant protection have been identified, including heat shock protein 90, chitin synthase, the segmentation gene hairy, and a matrix metalloprotease.

Implications of the Tribolium genome project for pest biology

Just two areas of Tribolium biology research are being revitalized by the availability of the genome sequence, namely olfaction and exoskeleton, or “smell and skin”.

Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum): From population genetics to functional genomics

The present text reviews the use of Tribolium in techniques such as RNAi, transgenic studies, immune priming, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, gene sequencing for characterization of microRNAs, and gene editing using engineered endonuclease.

Gene expression in Tribolium castaneum life stages: Identifying a species-specific target for pest control applications

The data demonstrate that RNA-Seq can identify genes important for insect survival and thus may be used to develop novel biologically-based insect control products.

From development to biodiversity—Tribolium castaneum, an insect model organism for short germband development

By analysing developmental processes in the beetle at the molecular and cellular level, inferences can be made for similar processes in other arthropods, and the door is now open for post-genomic studies such as RNA expression profiling, proteomics and functional genomics to identify beetle-specific gene circuits.

The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations

The completely sequenced and annotated spider mite genome is presented, representing the first complete chelicerate genome, and finds strong signatures of polyphagy and detoxification in gene families associated with feeding on different hosts and in new gene families acquired by lateral gene transfer.

The genome of pest Rhynchophorus ferrugineus reveals gene families important at the plant-beetle interface

The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is studied to provide a genome assembly and report duplications of detoxifying and insecticide resistance genes as well as genes under positive selection like the glycosyl hydrolyase gene family.



Satellite DNA of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum--comparative study of satellites from the genus Tribolium.

The phylogenetic relationships among Tribolium species deduced from satellite sequence agree with those based on karyological, chemotaxonomic, and hybridization data, indicating a parallel in the divergence of satellites and some genetic and cytogenetic characters.

Divergent segmentation mechanism in the short germ insect Tribolium revealed by giant expression and function

Segmentation is well understood in Drosophila, where all segments are determined at the blastoderm stage. In the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum, as in most insects, the posterior segments are added

The genes orthodenticle and hunchback substitute for bicoid in the beetle Tribolium

It is proposed that otd-1 and hb are part of an ancestral anterior patterning system in Tribolium, which is similar to that of strong bicoid mutants in Drosophila.

Sites of Fgf signalling and perception during embryogenesis of the beetle Tribolium castaneum

The recently sequenced genome of the beetle Tribolium is identified and Tc-fgf 8 is classified as an ancestor of pyramus and thisbe, the fly Fgf8 genes, suggesting an involvement in mesoderm formation in multicellular embryos.

Phylogenomic analysis reveals bees and wasps (Hymenoptera) at the base of the radiation of Holometabolous insects.

Emerging genome projects are utilized to assemble and analyze a data set of 185 nuclear genes, resulting in a fully resolved phylogeny of the major insect model species, finding that bees and wasps are basal to the other major holometabolous orders.

Larval RNAi in Tribolium (Coleoptera) for analyzing adult development

It is demonstrated that injection of green fluorescent protein (GFP) dsRNA into the larval body cavity can inhibit GFP expression beginning shortly after injection and continuing through pupal and adult stages.

Exploring systemic RNA interference in insects: a genome-wide survey for RNAi genes in Tribolium

Although both Tribolium and C. elegans show a robust systemic RNAi response, the genome-wide survey reveals significant differences between the RNAi mechanisms of these organisms.