It has been hypothesized that numerous genes contribute to individual variation in human cognition. An extensive search of the scientific literature was undertaken to identify candidate genes which might contribute to this complex trait. A list of over 150 candidate genes that may influence some aspect of cognition was compiled. Some genes are particularly strong candidates based on evidence for involvement in cognitive processes in humans, mice, and Drosophila melanogaster. This survey confirms that many genes are associated with cognitive variation and highlights the potential importance of animal models in the study of human cognition.