The genetic structure of the world’s first farmers

  title={The genetic structure of the world’s first farmers},
  author={Iosif Lazaridis and D. Nadel and G. Rollefson and D. Merrett and N. Rohland and Swapan Mallick and D. Fernandes and M. Novak and Beatriz Gamarra and K. Sirak and S. Connell and Kristin Stewardson and {\'E}adaoin Harney and Qiaomei Fu and G. Gonz{\'a}lez-Fortes and Song{\"u}l Alpaslan Roodenberg and G. Lengyel and F. Bocquentin and B. Gasparian and J. Monge and M. Gregg and V. Eshed and Ahuva-Sivan Mizrahi and C. Meiklejohn and F. Gerritsen and L. Bejenaru and M. Blueher and A. Campbell and Gianpero Cavalleri and D. Comas and P. Froguel and E. Gilbert and S. Kerr and P. Kovacs and J. Krause and D. McGettigan and M. Merrigan and D. Merriwether and Seamus O’Reilly and M. Richards and O. Semino and Michel Shamoon-Pour and G. Stefanescu and M. Stumvoll and A. Tönjes and A. Torroni and James F. Wilson and L. Yengo and N. Hovhannisyan and N. Patterson and R. Pinhasi and D. Reich},
We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 44 ancient Near Easterners ranging in time between ~12,000-1,400 BCE, from Natufian hunter-gatherers to Bronze Age farmers. We show that the earliest populations of the Near East derived around half their ancestry from a ‘Basal Eurasian’ lineage that had little if any Neanderthal admixture and that separated from other non-African lineages prior to their separation from each other. The first farmers of the southern Levant (Israel and Jordan) and Zagros… Expand
Genetic origins of the Minoans and Mycenaeans
It is shown that Minoans and Mycenaeans were genetically similar, having at least three-quarters of their ancestry from the first Neolithic farmers of western Anatolia and the Aegean, and most of the remainder from ancient populations related to those of the Caucasus and Iran. Expand
Genomic history of the Italian population recapitulates key evolutionary dynamics of both Continental and Southern Europeans
The contribution of multiple migratory and adaptive events in shaping the heterogeneous Italian genomic background is disentangled, which exemplify population dynamics and gene-environment interactions that played significant roles also in the formation of the Continental and Southern European genomic landscapes. Expand
Y-chromosomal analysis of Greek Cypriots reveals a primarily common pre-Ottoman paternal ancestry with Turkish Cypriots
The Y-chromosome analysis performed puts Cypriot in the middle of a genetic continuum stretching from the Levant to Southeast Europe and reveals that despite some differences in haplotype sharing and haplogroup structure, Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cyprusots share primarily a common pre-Ottoman paternal ancestry. Expand
Genetic Analysis and Genealogy of Ancient Bone Samples
The analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) can inspire both the public and the scientific community, and mitochondrial DNA analysis is a field of research in genetics and molecular archaeology that is efficient in less than ideal conditions, such as with biologically degraded materials. Expand
Responding to an enquiry concerning the geographic population structure (GPS) approach and the origin of Ashkenazic Jews - a reply to Flegontov et al
The principles of the GPS approach are clarified, the recent biogeographical and ancient DNA findings regarding AJs, and comment on the origin of Yiddish are reviewed. Expand
GPS ) approach and the origin of Ashkenazic Jews –
Responding to an enquiry concerning the geographic population structure (GPS) approach and the origin of Ashkenazic Jews – a reply to Flegontov et al. Abstract Recently, we investigated theExpand
In Search of the jüdische Typus: A Proposed Benchmark to Test the Genetic Basis of Jewishness Challenges Notions of “Jewish Biomarkers”
A benchmark where genomic data of Jews and non-Jews are hybridized over two generations and the observed and predicted Jewishness of the terminal offspring according to either the Orthodox religious law (Halacha) or the Israeli Law of Return are compared is proposed to test claims that Jews are genetically distinct from non- Jews. Expand
New insights on cultural dualism and population structure in the Middle Neolithic Funnel Beaker culture on the island of Gotland
In recent years it has been shown that the Neolithization of Europe was partly driven by migration of farming groups admixing with local hunter-gatherer groups as they dispersed across the continenExpand
Farming invented twice in Middle East, genomes study reveals
Study of 44 ancient Middle Eastern genomes supports idea of independent farming revolutions in the Fertile Crescent.
Статья посвящена сложным проблемам происхождения древнейших массовых археологических культур на территории Северного Кавказа. В процессе исследования осуществляется историко-генетический анализExpand


Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa
Genome-wide genetic data is used to show that there are at least two admixture events in the history of Khoisan populations (southern African hunter–gatherers and pastoralists who speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants) and that west Eurasian ancestry entered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa. Expand
Ancient DNA from the First European Farmers in 7500-Year-Old Neolithic Sites
It is found that 25% of the Neolithic farmers had one characteristic mtDNA type and that this type formerly was widespread among Neolithic Farmers in Central Europe and this finding lends weight to a proposed Paleolithic ancestry for modern Europeans. Expand
Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans
It is shown that most present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: west European hunter-gatherers, who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; ancient north Eurasians related to Upper Palaeolithic Siberians; and early European farmers, who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harboured west Europeanhunter-gatherer related ancestry. Expand
Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa
The results show that both males and females in North Africa underwent a similar admixture history with slight differences in the proportions of admixture components, and genome-wide diversity show similar patterns with admixture tests suggesting North Africans are a mixture of ancestral populations related to current Africans and Eurasians with more affinity towards the out-of-Africa populations than to sub-Saharan Africans. Expand
Ancient DNA Analysis of 8000 B.C. Near Eastern Farmers Supports an Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands
Mitochondrial DNA data of the original Near-Eastern Neolithic communities are presented with the aim of providing the adequate background for the interpretation of Neolithic genetic data from European samples and suggesting that the Neolithic was first introduced into Europe through pioneer seafaring colonization. Expand
A Common Genetic Origin for Early Farmers from Mediterranean Cardial and Central European LBK Cultures
The results indicate that retrieving ancient genomes from similarly warm Mediterranean environments such as the Near East is technically feasible and suggest that both Cardial and LBK peoples derived from a common ancient population located in or around the Balkan Peninsula. Expand
Genome-wide patterns of selection in 230 ancient Eurasians
A genome-wide scan for selection using ancient DNA is reported, capitalizing on the largest ancient DNA data set yet assembled: 230 West Eurasians who lived between 6500 and 300 bc, including 163 with newly reported data. Expand
Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe
We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000–3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost 400,000 polymorphisms. Enrichment of theseExpand
Genomic Ancestry of North Africans Supports Back-to-Africa Migrations
The genomes of seven North African populations reveal an extraordinarily complex history of migrations, involving at least five ancestral populations, into North Africa, and a gradient of likely autochthonous Maghrebi ancestry that increases from east to west across northern Africa. Expand
Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans
The findings reveal that western Eurasian genetic signatures in modern-day Native Americans derive not only from post-Columbian admixture, as commonly thought, but also from a mixed ancestry of the First Americans. Expand