The genetic program for cartilage development has deep homology within Bilateria

  title={The genetic program for cartilage development has deep homology within Bilateria},
  author={Oscar A. Tarazona and Leslie A Slota and Davys H. Lopez and GuangJun Zhang and Martin J. Cohn},
The evolution of novel cell types led to the emergence of new tissues and organs during the diversification of animals. The origin of the chondrocyte, the cell type that synthesizes cartilage matrix, was central to the evolution of the vertebrate endoskeleton. Cartilage-like tissues also exist outside the vertebrates, although their relationship to vertebrate cartilage is enigmatic. Here we show that protostome and deuterostome cartilage share structural and chemical properties, and that the… 

Evolutionary origin of endochondral ossification: the transdifferentiation hypothesis

A testable scenario according to which transdifferentiation played a fundamental role in the emergence of endochondral ossification, an osteichthyan-specific evolutionary novelty is proposed.

A Comprehensive Analysis of Fibrillar Collagens in Lamprey Suggests a Conserved Role in Vertebrate Musculoskeletal Evolution

The findings suggest that fibrillar collagens were multifunctional across the musculoskeletal system in the last common ancestor of vertebrates and have been largely conserved, but these genes alone cannot explain the origin of novel cell types.

Molecular Basis of Urostyle Development: Genes and Gene Regulation Underlying an Evolutionary Novelty

These experiments reveal that the coccyx and hypochord have two different molecular signatures, which opens the way to functional studies that help to better elucidate anuran bauplan evolution.

Diversity and Evolution of Mineralized Skeletal Tissues in Chondrichthyans

This work describes the architectural and histological diversity of neural arch mineralization in cartilaginous fishes and discusses the evolution of the mineralized tissues in cartileptic fishes in light of current knowledge of their phylogenetic relationships.

Limb Mesoderm and Head Ectomesenchyme Both Express a Core Transcriptional Program During Chondrocyte Differentiation

Conservation of a core transcriptional program during chondrocyte differentiation in both the limb and head suggest that the same core GRN was co-opted when cartilage appeared in different regions of the skeleton during vertebrate evolution.

The Evolution of Biomineralization through the Co-Option of Organic Scaffold Forming Networks

Comparisons suggest that biomineralization in deuterostomes evolved through the phylum specific co-option of GRNs that control distinct organic scaffolds to mineralization.

Comparative Approaches in Vertebrate Cartilage Histogenesis and Regulation: Insights from Lampreys and Hagfishes

A model through which these mesenchymal connective tissues acquired distinct histologies and that histological flexibility in cartilage existed in the last common ancestor of modern vertebrates is suggested.

Independent evolution of complex development in animals and plants: deep homology and lateral gene transfer

  • A. Nedelcu
  • Biology
    Development Genes and Evolution
  • 2019
The study identifies the SAND domain—a DNA-binding domain with important roles in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, as unique to animals, green algae, and land plants; and suggests that the parallel deployment of this ancestral domain in similar regulatory roles could have contributed to the independent evolution of complex development in these distant groups.



Insights from Amphioxus into the Evolution of Vertebrate Cartilage

The results suggest that neural crest-derived cartilage evolved by serial cooption of genes which functioned primitively in mesoderm, and not by single amphioxus orthologs of genes involved in neural crest chondrogenesis.

Lamprey type II collagen and Sox9 reveal an ancient origin of the vertebrate collagenous skeleton.

The results reveal that the genetic pathway for chondrogenesis in lampreys and gnathostomes is conserved through the activation of cartilage matrix molecules and suggest that a collagenous skeleton evolved surprisingly early in vertebrate evolution.

Chapter 2. Evolution of vertebrate cartilage development.

Hagfish and lancelet fibrillar collagens reveal that type II collagen-based cartilage evolved in stem vertebrates

The origin of vertebrates cartilage is investigated, and it is reported that hagfishes, the sister group to lampreys, also have Col2α1-based cartilage, suggesting its presence in the common ancestor of crown-group vertebrates, and lancelets are shown to possess an ancestral clade A fibrillar collagen (ColA) gene that is expressed in the notochord.

Cartilage is a metazoan tissue; integrating data from nonvertebrate sources

Vesicular cell-rich is presented as a new cartilage classification, a type of connective tissue that is often considered to be restricted to vertebrates, however, cartilaginous tissues are also found within invertebrates.

Bones and cartilage : developmental and evolutionary skeletal biology

The second edition of Bones and Cartilage includes the most recent knowledge of molecular, cellular, developmental and evolutionary processes, which are integrated to outline a unified discipline of developmental and developmental skeletal biology.

Development of the annelid axochord: Insights into notochord evolution

Ancestral state reconstruction suggests that contractile mesodermal midline cells existed in bilaterian ancestors and it is proposed that these cells, via vacuolization and stiffening, gave rise to the chordate notochord.

Conditional inactivation of Has2 reveals a crucial role for hyaluronan in skeletal growth, patterning, chondrocyte maturation and joint formation in the developing limb

It is demonstrated that HA has a crucial role in skeletal growth, patterning, chondrocyte maturation and synovial joint formation in the developing limb.

Development and evolution of chordate cartilage.

  • Amanda L. RychelB. Swalla
  • Biology, Medicine
    Journal of experimental zoology. Part B, Molecular and developmental evolution
  • 2007
Results indicate that the pharyngeal endodermal cells are responsible for secretion of the cartilage in hemichordates, whereas in lancelets, all the pharygeal cells surrounding the gill bars, ectodermal, endodmal, and mesodermal may be responsible for cartilage formation.