The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic

  title={The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic},
  author={Maanasa Raghavan and Michael Degiorgio and Anders Albrechtsen and Ida Moltke and Pontus Skoglund and Thorfinn Sand Korneliussen and Bjarne Gr{\o}nnow and Martin Appelt and Hans Christian Gull{\o}v and T. Max Friesen and William W. Fitzhugh and Helena Malmstr{\"o}m and Simon Rasmussen and Jesper Olsen and Linea Cecilie Melchior and Benjamin T. Fuller and Simon M Fahrni and Thomas W. Stafford and Vaughan Grimes and M. A. Priscilla Renouf and Jerome S. Cybulski and Niels Lynnerup and Marta Miraz{\'o}n Lahr and Kate Britton and Richard A. Knecht and Jette Arneborg and Mait Metspalu and Omar E. Cornejo and Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas and Yong Wang and Morten Rasmussen and Vibha Raghavan and Thomas v. O. Hansen and Elza K. Khusnutdinova and Tracey L. Pierre and Kirill A. Dneprovsky and Claus Bo Andreasen and Hans Lange and M. Geoffrey Hayes and Joan Brenner Coltrain and Victor A. Spitsyn and Anders G{\"o}therstr{\"o}m and Ludovic Orlando and Toomas Kivisild and Richard Villems and Michael H. Crawford and Finn Cilius Nielsen and J{\o}rgen Dissing and Jan Heinemeier and Morten Meldgaard and Carlos D. Bustamante and Dennis H. O’Rourke and Mattias Jakobsson and M. Thomas P. Gilbert and Rasmus Nielsen and Eske Willerslev},
Introduction Humans first peopled the North American Arctic (northern Alaska, Canada, and Greenland) around 6000 years ago, leaving behind a complex archaeological record that consisted of different cultural units and distinct ways of life, including the Early Paleo-Eskimos (Pre-Dorset/Saqqaq), the Late Paleo-Eskimos (Early Dorset, Middle Dorset, and Late Dorset), and the Thule cultures. Genetic origins of Paleo-Eskimos and Neo-Eskimos. All Paleo-Eskimos represent a single migration pulse from… 

Paleo-Eskimo genetic ancestry and the peopling of Chukotka and North America

A comprehensive model for the Holocene peopling events of Chukotka and North America is developed, and it is shown that Na-Dene-speaking peoples, people of the Aleutian Islands, and Yup’ik and Inuit across the Arctic region all share ancestry from a single Palaeo-Eskimo-related Siberian source.

The population history of northeastern Siberia since the Pleistocene

Analysis of 34 newly recovered ancient genomes from northeastern Siberia reveal at least three major migration events in the late Pleistocene population history of the region, including an initial peopling by a previously unknown Palaeolithic population of ‘Ancient North Siberians’ and a Holocene migration of other East Asian-related peoples, which generated the mosaic genetic make-up of contemporary peoples.

The population history of northeastern Siberia since the Pleistocene

34 ancient genome sequences are analyzed, revealing that the population history of northeastern Siberia was highly dynamic throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, with earlier, once widespread populations being replaced by distinct peoples.

Ancient Genomics and the Peopling of the Southwest Pacific

The finding that the ancient individuals had little to no Papuan ancestry implies that later human population movements spread Papuan Ancestry through the South Pacific after the first peopling of the islands.

Mitochondrial diversity of Iñupiat people from the Alaskan North Slope provides evidence for the origins of the Paleo- and Neo-Eskimo peoples.

The results yield insight into the maternal population history of the Alaskan North Slope and support the hypothesis that this region served as an ancestral pool for eastward movements to Canada and Greenland, for both the Paleo-Eskimo and Neo-ESkimo populations.

Molecular analysis of an ancient Thule population at Nuvuk, Point Barrow, Alaska.

The ancient mitochondrial sequences from Nuvuk confirm the link between the North Slope and the Thule who later spread east, and the maternal discontinuity between the Neo- inuit and Paleo-Inuit.

Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans

The results suggest that there has been gene flow between some Native Americans from both North and South America and groups related to East Asians and Australo-Melanesians, the latter possibly through an East Asian route that might have included ancestors of modern Aleutian Islanders.

Ancient human parallel lineages within North America contributed to a coastal expansion

91 ancient human genomes from California and Southwestern Ontario are presented and the existence of two distinct ancestries in North America is demonstrated and these proportions are consistent with a coastal dispersal and multiple admixture events.

Peopling of the Americas as inferred from ancient genomics.

All ancient individuals in the Americas, save for later-arriving Arctic peoples, are more closely related to contemporary Indigenous American individuals than to any other population elsewhere, which challenges the claim-which is based on anatomical evidence-that there was an early, non-Native American population in the Americans.

Bidirectional dispersals during the peopling of the North American Arctic

It is thought that Paleo-Inuit were the first people that settled the American Arctic about 5000 BP (before the present) from a migration that crossed Beringia from Northeast Asia. It is theorized



Contemporaneity of Dorset and Thule Cultures in the North American Arctic: New Radiocarbon Dates from Victoria Island, Nunavut1

  • T. Friesen
  • Environmental Science
    Current Anthropology
  • 2004
The prehistoric cultural sequence in the eastern North American Arctic is divided into two major traditions. People of the earlier Palaeo-Eskimo tradition entered the eastern Arctic from Alaska about

Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans

The findings reveal that western Eurasian genetic signatures in modern-day Native Americans derive not only from post-Columbian admixture, as commonly thought, but also from a mixed ancestry of the First Americans.

Paleo-Eskimo mtDNA Genome Reveals Matrilineal Discontinuity in Greenland

A mitochondrial genome from a Paleo-Eskimo human sequenced by using 3400-to 4500-year-old frozen hair excavated from an early Greenlandic Saqqaq settlement suggests that the earliest migrants into the New World's northern extremes derived from populations in the Bering Sea area and were not directly related to Native Americans or the later Neo-ESkimos that replaced them.

Origins and Genetic Legacy of Neolithic Farmers and Hunter-Gatherers in Europe

The results suggest that migration from southern Europe catalyzed the spread of agriculture and that admixture in the wake of this expansion eventually shaped the genomic landscape of modern-day Europe.

Human biogeography and climate change in Siberia and Arctic North America in the fourth and fifth millennia BP

  • W. PowersR. H. Jordan
  • Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1990
This paper explores the relation between the geographic shifts in prehistoric hunting populations and changes in climate between 4500 and 3000 before present (BP) within the polar regions from the

Reconstructing Native American Population History

It is shown that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America.

mtDNA variation among Greenland Eskimos: the edge of the Beringian expansion.

The data are in agreement with the view that the present Greenland Eskimos essentially descend from Alaskan Neo-Eskimos, and major mtDNA types shared between Na Dene and Eskimo are demonstrated.

Towards a new history and geography of human genes informed by ancient DNA

It is argued that it is time to critically re-evaluate current views of the peopling of the globe and the importance of natural selection in determining the geographic distribution of phenotypes and the transformative potential of ancient DNA is highlighted.

The Timing of the Thule Migration: New Dates from the Western Canadian Arctic

The Thule migration from Alaska to the eastern North American Arctic is central to the understanding of Inuit history. However, despite decades of study, its timing remains controversial, with recent

The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana

The genome sequence of a male infant recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana is sequenced and it is shown that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal’ta population into Native American ancestors is also shared by the AnZick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years bp.