The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic

@article{Raghavan2014TheGP,
  title={The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic},
  author={Maanasa Raghavan and Michael Degiorgio and Anders Albrechtsen and Ida Moltke and Pontus Skoglund and Thorfinn Sand Korneliussen and Bjarne Gr{\o}nnow and Martin Appelt and Hans Christian Gull{\o}v and T. Max Friesen and William W. Fitzhugh and Helena Malmstr{\"o}m and Simon Rasmussen and Jesper Olsen and Linea Cecilie Melchior and Benjamin T. Fuller and Simon M Fahrni and Thomas W. Stafford and Vaughan Grimes and M. A. Priscilla Renouf and Jerome S. Cybulski and Niels Lynnerup and Marta Miraz{\'o}n Lahr and Kate Britton and Richard A. Knecht and Jette Arneborg and Mait Metspalu and Omar E. Cornejo and Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas and Yong Wang and Morten Rasmussen and Vibha Raghavan and Thomas v. O. Hansen and Elza K. Khusnutdinova and Tracey L. Pierre and Kirill A. Dneprovsky and Claus Bo Andreasen and Hans Lange and M. Geoffrey Hayes and Joan Brenner Coltrain and Victor A. Spitsyn and Anders G{\"o}therstr{\"o}m and Ludovic Orlando and Toomas Kivisild and Richard Villems and Michael H. Crawford and Finn Cilius Nielsen and J{\o}rgen Dissing and Jan Heinemeier and Morten Meldgaard and Carlos D. Bustamante and Dennis H. O’Rourke and Mattias Jakobsson and M. Thomas P. Gilbert and Rasmus Nielsen and Eske Willerslev},
  journal={Science},
  year={2014},
  volume={345}
}
Introduction Humans first peopled the North American Arctic (northern Alaska, Canada, and Greenland) around 6000 years ago, leaving behind a complex archaeological record that consisted of different cultural units and distinct ways of life, including the Early Paleo-Eskimos (Pre-Dorset/Saqqaq), the Late Paleo-Eskimos (Early Dorset, Middle Dorset, and Late Dorset), and the Thule cultures. Genetic origins of Paleo-Eskimos and Neo-Eskimos. All Paleo-Eskimos represent a single migration pulse from… Expand

Topics from this paper

Paleo-Eskimo genetic legacy across North America
TLDR
It is shown that Paleo-Eskimo ancestry is widespread among populations who speak Na-Dene and Eskimo-Aleut languages, and a comprehensive model for the complex peopling of North America is presented. Expand
Paleo-Eskimo genetic ancestry and the peopling of Chukotka and North America
TLDR
A comprehensive model for the Holocene peopling events of Chukotka and North America is developed, and it is shown that Na-Dene-speaking peoples, people of the Aleutian Islands, and Yup’ik and Inuit across the Arctic region all share ancestry from a single Palaeo-Eskimo-related Siberian source. Expand
The population history of northeastern Siberia since the Pleistocene
TLDR
Analysis of 34 newly recovered ancient genomes from northeastern Siberia reveal at least three major migration events in the late Pleistocene population history of the region, including an initial peopling by a previously unknown Palaeolithic population of ‘Ancient North Siberians’ and a Holocene migration of other East Asian-related peoples, which generated the mosaic genetic make-up of contemporary peoples. Expand
The population history of northeastern Siberia since the Pleistocene
TLDR
34 ancient genome sequences are analyzed, revealing that the population history of northeastern Siberia was highly dynamic throughout the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, with earlier, once widespread populations being replaced by distinct peoples. Expand
Ancient Genomics and the Peopling of the Southwest Pacific
TLDR
The finding that the ancient individuals had little to no Papuan ancestry implies that later human population movements spread Papuan Ancestry through the South Pacific after the first peopling of the islands. Expand
Mitochondrial diversity of Iñupiat people from the Alaskan North Slope provides evidence for the origins of the Paleo- and Neo-Eskimo peoples.
TLDR
The results yield insight into the maternal population history of the Alaskan North Slope and support the hypothesis that this region served as an ancestral pool for eastward movements to Canada and Greenland, for both the Paleo-Eskimo and Neo-ESkimo populations. Expand
Molecular analysis of an ancient Thule population at Nuvuk, Point Barrow, Alaska.
TLDR
The ancient mitochondrial sequences from Nuvuk confirm the link between the North Slope and the Thule who later spread east, and the maternal discontinuity between the Neo- inuit and Paleo-Inuit. Expand
Genomic evidence for the Pleistocene and recent population history of Native Americans
TLDR
The results suggest that there has been gene flow between some Native Americans from both North and South America and groups related to East Asians and Australo-Melanesians, the latter possibly through an East Asian route that might have included ancestors of modern Aleutian Islanders. Expand
Ancient human parallel lineages within North America contributed to a coastal expansion
TLDR
91 ancient human genomes from California and Southwestern Ontario are presented and the existence of two distinct ancestries in North America is demonstrated and these proportions are consistent with a coastal dispersal and multiple admixture events. Expand
A genomic view of the peopling of the Americas.
TLDR
It is shown that during the Holocene, new migrations from Asia introduced the Saqqaq/Dorset Paleoeskimo population to the North American Arctic ∼4500 years ago, ancestry that is potentially connected with ancestry found in Athabaskan-speakers today. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 186 REFERENCES
Contemporaneity of Dorset and Thule Cultures in the North American Arctic: New Radiocarbon Dates from Victoria Island, Nunavut1
The prehistoric cultural sequence in the eastern North American Arctic is divided into two major traditions. People of the earlier Palaeo-Eskimo tradition entered the eastern Arctic from Alaska aboutExpand
Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans
TLDR
The findings reveal that western Eurasian genetic signatures in modern-day Native Americans derive not only from post-Columbian admixture, as commonly thought, but also from a mixed ancestry of the First Americans. Expand
Paleo-Eskimo mtDNA Genome Reveals Matrilineal Discontinuity in Greenland
TLDR
A mitochondrial genome from a Paleo-Eskimo human sequenced by using 3400-to 4500-year-old frozen hair excavated from an early Greenlandic Saqqaq settlement suggests that the earliest migrants into the New World's northern extremes derived from populations in the Bering Sea area and were not directly related to Native Americans or the later Neo-ESkimos that replaced them. Expand
Human biogeography and climate change in Siberia and Arctic North America in the fourth and fifth millennia BP
  • W. Powers, R. H. Jordan
  • Geography
  • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences
  • 1990
This paper explores the relation between the geographic shifts in prehistoric hunting populations and changes in climate between 4500 and 3000 before present (BP) within the polar regions from theExpand
Reconstructing Native American Population History
TLDR
It is shown that the initial peopling followed a southward expansion facilitated by the coast, with sequential population splits and little gene flow after divergence, especially in South America. Expand
Towards a new history and geography of human genes informed by ancient DNA
TLDR
It is argued that it is time to critically re-evaluate current views of the peopling of the globe and the importance of natural selection in determining the geographic distribution of phenotypes and the transformative potential of ancient DNA is highlighted. Expand
mtDNA variation among Greenland Eskimos: the edge of the Beringian expansion.
TLDR
The data are in agreement with the view that the present Greenland Eskimos essentially descend from Alaskan Neo-Eskimos, and major mtDNA types shared between Na Dene and Eskimo are demonstrated. Expand
The Timing of the Thule Migration: New Dates from the Western Canadian Arctic
The Thule migration from Alaska to the eastern North American Arctic is central to the understanding of Inuit history. However, despite decades of study, its timing remains controversial, with recentExpand
The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana
TLDR
The genome sequence of a male infant recovered from the Anzick burial site in western Montana is sequenced and it is shown that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal’ta population into Native American ancestors is also shared by the AnZick-1 individual and thus happened before 12,600 years bp. Expand
mtDNA variation in Inuit populations of Greenland and Canada: migration history and population structure.
TLDR
Examination of mtDNA control-region sequences from Greenlandic Inuit and Canadian Kitikmeot Inuit casts doubt on the prevailing hypothesis that contemporary Inuit trace their all of their ancestry to so-called Thule groups that expanded from Alaska about 800-1,000 years ago. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...