The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic.


The New World Arctic, the last region of the Americas to be populated by humans, has a relatively well-researched archaeology, but an understanding of its genetic history is lacking. We present genome-wide sequence data from ancient and present-day humans from Greenland, Arctic Canada, Alaska, Aleutian Islands, and Siberia. We show that Paleo-Eskimos (~3000 BCE to 1300 CE) represent a migration pulse into the Americas independent of both Native American and Inuit expansions. Furthermore, the genetic continuity characterizing the Paleo-Eskimo period was interrupted by the arrival of a new population, representing the ancestors of present-day Inuit, with evidence of past gene flow between these lineages. Despite periodic abandonment of major Arctic regions, a single Paleo-Eskimo metapopulation likely survived in near-isolation for more than 4000 years, only to vanish around 700 years ago.

DOI: 10.1126/science.1255832

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@article{Raghavan2014TheGP, title={The genetic prehistory of the New World Arctic.}, author={Maanasa Raghavan and Michael DeGiorgio and Anders Albrechtsen and Ida Moltke and Pontus Skoglund and Thorfinn Sand Korneliussen and Bjarne Gr\onnow and Martin Appelt and Hans Christian Gull\ov and Therese Friesen and W. FitzHugh and Helena Malmstr{\"{o}m and Simon Rasmussen and Jesper Wolff Olsen and Linea Cecilie Melchior and Benjamin T Fuller and Simon M Fahrni and Thomas W. Stafford and Vaughan Grimes and M A Priscilla Renouf and Jerome S. Cybulski and Niels Lynnerup and Marta Miraz{\'o}n Lahr and Kate Cerino Britton and Rick Knecht and Jette Arneborg and Mait Metspalu and Omar E Cornejo and Anna-Sapfo Malaspinas and Yong Wang and Morten Rasmussen and Vibha Raghavan and Thomas v. O. Hansen and Elza K. Khusnutdinova and Tracey L Pierre and Kirill Dneprovsky and Claus Andreasen and Hans -Walter Lange and M. Geoffrey Hayes and Joan Brenner Coltrain and Victor Alexeevich Spitsyn and Anders G{\"{o}therstr{\"{o}m and Ludovic Orlando and Toomas Kivisild and Richard Villems and Michael H. Crawford and Finn Cilius Nielsen and J\orgen Dissing and Jan Heinemeier and Morten Meldgaard and Carlos D. Bustamante and D H O'rourke and Mattias Jakobsson and M. Thomas P. Gilbert and Rasmus Nielsen and Eske Willerslev}, journal={Science}, year={2014}, volume={345 6200}, pages={1255832} }