The genetic prehistory of southern Africa

@article{Pickrell2012TheGP,
  title={The genetic prehistory of southern Africa},
  author={Joseph K. Pickrell and Nick J. Patterson and Chiara Barbieri and Falko Berthold and Linda Gerlach and Tom G{\"u}ldemann and Blesswell Kure and Sununguko Wata Mpoloka and Hirosi Nakagawa and Christfried Naumann and Mark Lipson and Po-Ru Loh and Joseph Lachance and Joanna L. Mountain and Carlos D. Bustamante and Bonnie Berger and Sarah A. Tishkoff and Brenna M. Henn and Mark Stoneking and David Reich and Brigitte Pakendorf},
  journal={Nature Communications},
  year={2012},
  volume={3}
}
Southern and eastern African populations that speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants are known to harbour some of the most ancient genetic lineages in humans, but their relationships are poorly understood. Here, we report data from 23 populations analysed at over half a million single-nucleotide polymorphisms, using a genome-wide array designed for studying human history. The southern African Khoisan fall into two genetic groups, loosely corresponding to the northwestern and… 
Ancient west Eurasian ancestry in southern and eastern Africa
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Genome-wide genetic data is used to show that there are at least two admixture events in the history of Khoisan populations (southern African hunter–gatherers and pastoralists who speak non-Bantu languages with click consonants) and that west Eurasian ancestry entered southern Africa indirectly through eastern Africa.
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It is estimated that the southern Kalahari populations were among the last to experience gene flow from Bantu-speakers, approximately 14 generations ago, and local adoption of pastoralism appears to have been primarily a cultural process with limited impact from eastern African genetic diffusion.
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TLDR
The data reveal a multilayered history of the indigenous populations of southern Africa, who are likely to be the result of admixture of different genetic substrates, such as resident forager populations and pre-Bantu pastoralists from East Africa.
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It is estimated that the southern Kalahari populations were among the last to experience gene flow from Bantu speakers, ∼14 generations ago, and it is concluded that local adoption of pastoralism appears to have been primarily a cultural process with limited genetic impact from eastern Africa.
The evolutionary history of Southern Africa.
Complex Ancient Genetic Structure and Cultural Transitions in Southern African Populations
TLDR
Fine-mapping of these components in southern African populations reveals admixture and cultural reversion involving several Khoesan groups, and highlights that Bantu speakers and Coloured individuals have different mixtures of these ancient ancestries.
Genome-Wide SNP Analysis of Southern African Populations Provides New Insights into the Dispersal of Bantu-Speaking Groups
The expansion of Bantu-speaking agropastoralist populations had a great impact on the genetic, linguistic, and cultural variation of sub-Saharan Africa. It is generally accepted that Bantu languages
Dispersals and genetic adaptation of Bantu-speaking populations in Africa and North America
TLDR
The analysis of the genetic diversity of Bantu speakers revealed adaptive introgression of genes that likely originated in other African populations, including specific immune-related genes, and applied this information to African Americans suggests that gene flow from Africa into the Americas was more complex than previously thought.
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