The genetic engineering of production traits in domestic animals

  title={The genetic engineering of production traits in domestic animals},
  author={Kevin A. Ward and Colin D. Nancarrow},
The transfer of recombinant DNA by microinjection of embryo pronuclei provides a novel approach to the manipulation of production traits in domestic animals. In this review, several of the key areas currently under investigation are examined and their progress evaluated. These include the manipulation of the endocrine system by altered growth hormone genes and the modification of animal biochemistry by the introduction of the cysteine biosynthetic pathway and the glyoxylate cycle. The… 
Animal Biotechnology 2
Since the cloning of “Dolly” by somatic cell nuclear transfer in 1996, numerous articles have been published concerning the application of this technology to a large variety of mammalian species
Regulatory Dysfunction inhibits the Development and Application of Transgenic Livestock for Use in Agriculture
In the 31 years since the first report of transgenic livestock, a number of potentially useful animals, including cattle, goats, pigs, and sheep, have been made, but there still are no genetically engineered animal-based food products on the market.
Introduction and expression of the bacterial glyoxylate cycle genes in transgenic mice
Two bacterial genes, encoding ICL and MS, were modified in order to introduce them into the mouse germ line and enzyme activities were detected in the liver and intestine at levels up to 25% of those measured in fully derepressedEscherichia coli cells.
Precision editing of large animal genomes.
Precision genetics will enhance genome-based improvement of farm animals for food production and enhance the development of therapeutic biomaterials and models of human disease as resources for theDevelopment of advanced patient therapies.
Expression of bacterial cysteine biosynthesis genes in transgenic mice and sheep: toward a newin vivo amino acid biosynthesis pathway and improved wool growth
Results indicate that enzymically active bacterial cysteine biosynthesis gene products can be coexpressed in mammalian cellsin vivo but that expression of the genes should be spatio-temporally restricted to the adult sheep rumen epithelium.
Growth quantitative trait loci (QTL) on mouse Chromosome 10 in a Quackenbush-Swiss x C57BL/6J backcross
Analysis of genomic regions associated with the growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (Igf-1) loci identified genetic markers linked to growth and litter size quantitative trait loci that are associated with growth, body composition, and reproductive traits.
The article investigates the influence of granulosa cells on the oocyte maturation to the stage of metaphase of meiosis II and proves that oocyte culturing in the monolayer of epithelium cells has a positive effect on the process of cell division.
Production of transgenic sheep: Microinjection of the bovine P77 gene construct in Chios sheep breed zygotes
Στην eργασία αυτή μeλeτήθηκe η δυνατότητα eνσωμάτωσης της γονιδιακής κατασκeυής Ρ77 των βοοeιδών σe ζυγωτά και έμβρυα δυο κυττάρων προβάτων φυλής Χίου. Η γονιδιακή κατασκeυή Ρ77 των βοοeιδών
18. Transgenic Animals


The potential of transgenic animals for improved agricultural productivity.
The results demonstrate that the unregulated production of growth hormone in transgenic sheep reduces carcass fat, elevates metabolic rate and heat production, causes skeletal abnormalities and impairs survival.
The Creation of Transgenic Sheep for Increased Wool Productivity
The application of genetic engineering to domestic livestock was investigated by studying the phenotypic effects of two metallothionein-growth hormone fusion genes on the phenotypes of transgenic
Genetic engineering of livestock.
The ability to produce pigs exhibiting only the beneficial, growth-promoting effects of growth hormone by a transgenic approach may require better control of transgene expression, a different genetic background, or a modified husbandry regimen.
Isolation of Microbial Genes for Cysteine Synthesis and Prospects for their Use in Increasing Wool Growth
One logical application of recombinant DNA technology is to engineer increased wool productivity by restoring the sheep’s capacity to synthesise essential amino acids by isolating the minimal requirement of two genes for cysteine synthesis from microbial sources and expressing them in sheep via transgenesis.
Gene Transfer into Sheep
Five founder transgenic sheep described carry genes designed to direct the production of human clotting factor IX or human αl–antitrypsin in milk and may ultimately provide a new source of these and other therapeutic proteins.
Insertion, expression and physiology of growth-regulating genes in ruminants.
The need for improved regulation of inserted genes or investigation of alternative systems, such as GH receptors, to improve growth using the transgenic approach in ruminants is indicated.
Progress on gene transfer in farm animals.
Transgenic pigs and sheep have been produced by the microinjection of single-cell zygotes and two-cell ova with linear molecules of mouse metallothionein I (MT) promoter/regulator fused to either the
Production of transgenic rabbits, sheep and pigs by microinjection
Integration of the fusion gene in all three species and expression of the gene in transgenic rabbits and pigs are reported here.
Introduction of a porcine growth hormone fusion gene into transgenic pigs promotes growth.
Six transgenic pigs have been produced by microinjecting a human metallothionein promoter/porcine growth hormone gene construct into the pronuclei of fertilized eggs which were transferred to synchronized recipient sows, and two of the animals have been shown to pass on the introduced genes to their offspring.
Genetic engineering of mammalian embryos.
These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of introducing foreign genes into the genome of several animal species by microinjection of eggs.