The genetic basis for differences in leaf form between Arabidopsis thaliana and its wild relative Cardamine hirsuta

  title={The genetic basis for differences in leaf form between Arabidopsis thaliana and its wild relative Cardamine hirsuta},
  author={Angela Hay and Miltos Tsiantis},
  journal={Nature Genetics},
A key question in biology is how differences in gene function or regulation produce new morphologies during evolution. Here we investigate the genetic basis for differences in leaf form between two closely related plant species, Arabidopsis thaliana and Cardamine hirsuta. We report that in C. hirsuta, class I KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) proteins are required in the leaf to delay cellular differentiation and produce a dissected leaf form, in contrast to A. thaliana, in which KNOX exclusion… 

A developmental framework for dissected leaf formation in the Arabidopsis relative Cardamine hirsuta

It is shown that lateral leaflet formation in C. hirsuta requires the establishment of growth foci that form after leaf initiation, and evidence is provided that differential deployment of a fundamental mechanism polarizing cellular growth contributed to the diversification of leaf form during evolution.

Leaf Shape Evolution Through Duplication, Regulatory Diversification, and Loss of a Homeobox Gene

It is shown that leaflet development requires the REDUCED COMPLEXITY (RCO) homeodomain protein, which evolved in the Brassicaceae family through gene duplication and was lost in A. thaliana, contributing to leaf simplification in this species.

Weeds of change: Cardamine hirsuta as a new model system for studying dissected leaf development

Observations show how species-specific deployment of fundamental shoot development networks may have sculpted simple versus dissected leaf forms and illustrate how extending developmental genetic studies to morphologically divergent relatives of model organisms can greatly help elucidate the mechanisms underlying the evolution of form.

Conservation vs divergence in LEAFY and APETALA1 functions between Arabidopsis thaliana and Cardamine hirsuta.

It is found that Lfy and AP1 are conserved floral regulators that act nonredundantly in C. hirsuta, such that LFY has more obvious roles in floral and leaf development in C., than in A. thaliana.

Alternate wiring of a KNOXI genetic network underlies differences in leaf development of A. thaliana and C. hirsuta.

It is suggested that certain regulatory genes with low pleiotropy are predisposed to readily integrate into or disengage from conserved genetic networks influencing organ geometry, thus rapidly altering their properties and contributing to morphological divergence.

Arabidopsis thaliana Leaf Form Evolved via Loss of KNOX Expression in Leaves in Association with a Selective Sweep

Functional Genomics and Genetic Control of Compound Leaf Development in Medicago truncatula: An Overview.

  • Rujin Chen
  • Environmental Science
    Methods in molecular biology
  • 2018
These recent studies have shown that SGL1/UNI, FCL1, and PALM1 provide a genetic framework for the understanding of compound leaf development in the legume plants.

SIMPLE LEAF3 encodes a ribosome-associated protein required for leaflet development in Cardamine hirsuta.

The data indicate that leaflet development is sensitive to perturbation of RLI2-dependent aspects of cellular growth, and link ribosome function with dissected-leaf development, and highlights the potential of genetic studies in C. hirsuta to uncover novel gene functions.

Genetic control of compound leaf development in the mungbean (Vigna radiata L.)

The results suggested that HEL1 is a key factor coordinating distinct processes in the control of compound leaf development in mungbean and its related non-IRLC legumes and could inform breeding efforts in legumes generally.



Conservation and molecular dissection of ROUGH SHEATH2 and ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 function in leaf development

Maize ROUGH SHEATH2 (RS2) and Arabidopsis ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 (AS1) are orthologous Myb-related genes required for leaf development and act as negative regulators of class 1 KNOTTED1-like homeobox

A gene fusion at a homeobox locus: alterations in leaf shape and implications for morphological evolution.

This work describes here an instance of a spontaneously arisen fusion between a gene encoding a metabolic enzyme and a homeodomain protein, and suggests that such phenomena may have played a role in the evolution of form.

The rough sheath2 gene negatively regulates homeobox gene expression during maize leaf development.

It is proposed that thers2 gene product acts to repress knox gene expression and that rs2 gene action is essential for the elaboration of normal leaf morphology.

The role of JAGGED in shaping lateral organs

The role of JAGGED, a gene that encodes a protein with a single C2H2 zinc-finger domain, in controlling the morphogenesis of lateral organs in Arabidopsis thaliana is characterized and it is shown that J AGGED suppresses the premature differentiation of tissues, which is necessary for the formation of the distal region.

KNAT1 induces lobed leaves with ectopic meristems when overexpressed in Arabidopsis.

It is shown that ectopic expression of KNAT1 in Arabidopsis transforms simple leaves into lobed leaves, and further suggest that kn1-related genes may have played a role in the evolution of leaf diversity.

A dominant mutation in the maize homeobox gene, Knotted-1, causes its ectopic expression in leaf cells with altered fates.

Kn1 functions in its wild-type context as a regulator of cell determination and apparently alters the fates of leaf cells in which it is ectopically expressed from an early stage of leaf development.

Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot.

It is suggested that AS1 and AS2 promote leaf differentiation through repression of knox expression in leaves, and that SE and PKL globally restrict the competence to respond to genes that promote morphogenesis.

Analysis of the Competence to Respond to KNOTTED1 Activity in Arabidopsis Leaves Using a Steroid Induction System1

It is demonstrated that lobed leaf morphology is produced in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that the amount of KN1 quantitatively affects the severity of lobing.

Genetic interactions among floral homeotic genes of Arabidopsis.

The phenotypes of multiple mutant lines indicate that the wild-type products of the AGAMOUS and APETALA2 genes interact antagonistically, and a model is proposed that suggests that the products of these homeotic genes are each active in fields occupying two adjacent whorls.