The generation of diversity and pattern in animal development

  title={The generation of diversity and pattern in animal development},
  author={J. B. Gurdon},
  • J. Gurdon
  • Published 24 January 1992
  • Biology
  • Cell

Neural induction and antero-posterior patterning in the amphibian embryo: past, present and future

Striking progress has been made in identifying putative neural-inducing molecules, and recent experiments have begun to suggest how these might contribute to A-P patterning.

Animal and vegetal poles of the mouse egg predict the polarity of the embryonic axis, yet are nonessential for development.

It is discussed that although polarity of the postimplantation embryo can be traced back to the 8-cell stage and in turn to the organisation of the egg, it is not absolutely fixed by this time.

Patterning of the embryo: the first spatial decisions in the life of a mouse.

Recent findings are discussed, which have led to the recognition that mouse embryos initiate development of their polarity at the earliest stages of their life, and questions about the nature of cellular and molecular mechanisms that could convert developmental cues in the zygote to axes of the blastocyst and hence into polarity of the post-implantation embryo are raised.

Mesoderm induction in amphibians and chick

The demonstration of mesoderm inducing activity of activin and FGF in other groups of vertebrates, particularly the chick embryo brings out the possibility of a universal mechanism of mesderm induction being operative in all the vertebrates.

Hormonal regulation of embryogenesis: the formation of mesoderm in Xenopus laevis.

Embryonic induction bears other parallels to endocrine systems as well; for example, the responding cell is sensitive to very low levels of inducing signals, and the distinctions between endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine ph...

Gene expression during metamorphosis: An ideal model for post‐embryonic development

  • J. Tata
  • Biology
    BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • 1993
This review describes the regulation of expression of some of the ‘adult’ gene products during meetamorphosis in invertebrates and vertebrates and argues that metamorphosis is an ideal model for analyzing some ofThe major mechanisms governing post‐embryonic development.

Regulation of the trunk-tail patterning in the ascidian embryo: a possible interaction of cascades between lithium/beta-catenin and localized maternal factor pem.

The results suggest that lithium treatment affects the trunk-tail patterning during embryogenesis by changing the cell fate of specific cell lineages and that pem plays a role in the patterning of the ascidian embryo via a signaling cascade that is affected by lithium.



A role for cytoplasmic determinants in the development of the mouse early embryo?

A role for cytoplasmic determinants in the early development of several organisms has been suggested by results from a variety of studies, and a regulatory capacity may exist whereby the localization and/or expression of putative determinants can be modified.

How embryos work: a comparative view of diverse modes of cell fate specification.

It is concluded that the regulatory architectures according to which the programs of gene expression are organized are special to each form of development, and that common regulatory principles are to be found only at lower levels, such as those at which the control regions of histospecific structural genes operate.

Segregation during ascidian embryogenesis of egg cytoplasmic information for tissue-specific enzyme development.

  • J. Whittaker
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1973
Cleavage-arrested embryos of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis were able to differentiate two tissue-specific enzymes-muscle acetylcholinesterase and brain pigment cell tyrosinase, which implies the presence of specific positional information in the egg cytoplasm that is differentially segregated during cleavage.

Acetylcholinesterase development in extra cells caused by changing the distribution of myoplasm in ascidian embryos.

  • J. Whittaker
  • Biology
    Journal of embryology and experimental morphology
  • 1980
This research shows that myoplasmic crescent material of the ascidian egg has both functional autonomy and functional specificity in establishing the differentiation pathway of muscle lineage cells.

Plasticity of the differentiated state.

Results show that the expression of genes in the nuclei of differentiated cells is remarkably plastic and susceptible to modulation by the cytoplasm, and the isolation of the genes encoding the tissue-specific trans-acting regulators responsible for muscle gene activation should now be possible.

Transplantation of posterior polar plasm in Drosophila. Induction of germ cells at the anterior pole of the egg.

  • K. IllmenseeA. Mahowald
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1974
It is demonstrated that the posterior polar plasm can be transferred to the anterior tip of the embryo and that in this presumptive somatic region it still retains its capacity to determine the formation of the primordial germ cells.