The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality

  title={The general causality orientations scale: Self-determination in personality},
  author={E. Deci and R. Ryan},
  journal={Journal of Research in Personality},
  • E. Deci, R. Ryan
  • Published 1985
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Research in Personality
Abstract This paper describes the development and validation of a general causality orientations scale. Causality orientations are conceptualized as relatively enduring aspects of people that characterize the source of initiation and regulation, and thus the degree of self-determination, of their behavior. Three orientations—autonomy, control, and impersonal—are measured by the three subscales of the instrument. Individuals are given a score on each orientation, thus allowing the use of the… Expand
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  • E. Deci, R. Ryan
  • Psychology, Computer Science
  • Perspectives in Social Psychology
  • 1985
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