The future of gold in electronics

  title={The future of gold in electronics},
  author={Timothy W. Ellis},
  journal={Gold Bulletin},
  • T. Ellis
  • Published 1 March 2004
  • Materials Science
  • Gold Bulletin
Gold-based materials have been a mainstay of the electronics and semiconductor industry since the physics was just a laboratory curiosity. Gold is the workhorse material in wire bond, flip chip and off wafer interconnections due to its corrosion resistance, ability to form metallurgical bonds by soldering or cold welding, and ease of fabrication. As the electronics and semiconductor industries grew, so did the use, of gold in spite of the feature size reduction so elegantly demonstrated in… 
Evolutions of bonding wires used in semiconductor electronics: perspective over 25 years
  • C.L. Gan, U. Hashim
  • Engineering
    Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics
  • 2015
The objective of this review is to study the evolution and key findings and critical technical challenges, solutions and future trend of bonding wires used in semiconductor electronics. Evolutions of
Mechanics of Non Planar Interfaces in Flip-Chip Interconnects
This study encompasses contact between deformable bodies, bonding at the asperities and fracture properties at interfaces formed by the interconnects of flip-chip packages, and global-local, elastic-plastic, large-deformation finite element modeling with nonlinear contact surfaces is used to further understand and quantify this time-dependent surface-flattening phenomenon.
Extended reliability of gold and copper ball bonds in microelectronic packaging
Wire bonding is the predominant mode of interconnection in microelectronic packaging. Gold wire bonding has been refined again and again to retain control of interconnect technology due to its ease
Recent progress in gold nanoparticle-based non-volatile memory devices
Recently, much progress has been made toward the fabrication of non-volatile memory devices based on metallic nanoparticles. Among the many kinds of nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles are some of the
Printing gold nanoparticles with an electrohydrodynamic direct-write device
A dispersion containing 15nm gold particles in ethanol was subjected to electrohydrodynamic atomization, producing droplets with an average size of ≈26μm as measured by laser diffraction. An
Materials specificity and directed assembly of a gold-binding peptide.
This result shows the utility of an engineered peptide as a molecular erector in the directed immobilization of a nanoscale hybrid entity (SAQDs) over selected regions (Au) on a fairly complex substrate ( au and Pt micropatterned regions on silica).
Mechanics of Adhesively Bonded Flip-Chip-on-Flex Assemblies. Part II: Effect of Bump Coplanarity on Manufacturability and Durability of Non-Conducting Adhesive Assemblies
This is Part II of a two-part paper on the mechanics of adhesively-bonded Flip-Chip-on-Flex (FCOF) assemblies. Part I dealt with the use of anisotropic conductive adhesives (ACAs) while this paper
Effects of wire type and mold compound on wearout reliability of semiconductor flash fineline BGA package
This paper discusses the influence of wire type (Cu and Au) and the effect of mold compound on package reliability after exposure to component reliability stress tests. Failure analysis is conducted


The movement to eliminate lead (Pb), especially active in Japan and the European Union, has resulted in an increasing use of pure tin (Sn) coatings on leads and other external and internal surfaces
Nanofabrication of Small Copper Clusters on Gold(111) Electrodes by a Scanning Tunneling Microscope
The use of scanning tunneling microscopy in an electrochemical environment as a tool for the nanoscale modification of gold electrodes was demonstrated, allowing the fabrication of various patterns, cluster arrays, and “conducting wires” in a very flexible and convenient manner.
Direct-write technologies for rapid prototyping applications : sensors, electronics and integrated power sources
1. Introduction to Direct-Write Technologies for Rapid Prototyping 2. Overview of Commercial and Military Application Areas in Passive and Active Electronic Devices 3. Role of Direct-Write Tools and
Gold nanoelectrodes of varied size: transition to molecule-like charging
A transition from metal-like double-layer capacitive charging to redox-like charging was observed in electrochemical ensemble Coulomb staircase experiments on solutions of gold nanoparticles of varied core size, consistent with new near-infrared spectroscopic data showing an emerging gap between the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied orbitals.
GaN/AIGaN Heterostructure Devices: Photodetectors and Field-Effect Transistors
In this article, we review recent progress in GaN-based photodetectors and field-effect transistors (FETs), including optoelectronic FETs, and discuss materials parameters and fabrication
Printing meets lithography: Soft approaches to high-resolution patterning
We are developing a high-resolution printing technique based on transferring a pattern from an elastomeric stamp to a solid substrate by conformal contact. This is an attempt to enhance the accuracy
A continuous x‐ray study of the interfacial reaction in Au–Al thin‐film couples
The intermetallic compound formation in gold–aluminum thin‐film couples is monitored as a continuous function of time by photographic x‐ray analysis during in situ annealing in the temperature range
Conjugated-Polymer Micro- and Milliactuators for Biological Applications
The development of new conjugated-polymer tools for the study of the biological realm, and for use in a clinical setting, is reviewed in this article. Conjugated-polymer actuators, based on the
Design of Surfaces for Patterned Alignment of Liquid Crystals on Planar and Curved Substrates
Molecularly designed surfaces formed by chemisorption of alkanethiols on ultrathin films of gold permit control of both the azimuthal and polar orientations of supported nematic liquid crystals
"Dip-Pen" nanolithography
A direct-write "dip-pen" nanolithography (DPN) has been developed to deliver collections of molecules in a positive printing mode, making DPN a potentially useful tool for creating and functionalizing nanoscale devices.