The future of cloning

  title={The future of cloning},
  author={J. B. Gurdon and Alan Colman},
It is now possible to make clones, or exact genetic copies, of sheep, cows, goats, mice and, probably, humans. This opens the way towards the production of replacement body parts from adult cells. 

The Human Cloning Era : On the doorstep to our posthuman future

Human reproductive cloning came to the public´s attention when Dolly the sheep was cloned in Scotland in 1997. This news quickly spread around the world causing both excitements at the possibilitie

Whole Organism Cloning

Can they rebuild us?

The idea of therapeutic cloning, which offers the potential of growing replacement tissues perfectly matched to their recipients, is falling from favour. But there are alternatives, as Peter Aldhous

Mammalian cloning: possibilities and threats

The low efficiencies of cloning by NT coupled with high embryonic, fetal and neonatal losses may restrict immediate commercial applications in agriculture, but the greatest benefits and practical implications of this new technology could be in transplantation medicine and therapeutic cloning.

Keith's MAGIC: Cloning and the Cell Cycle.

  • D. Wells
  • Biology
    Cellular reprogramming
  • 2013
This seminal experiment proved the totipotency of adult somatic nuclei and finally confirmed that adult cells could differentiate without irreversible changes to the genetic material.

Inter-species therapeutic cloning: the looming problem of mitochondrial DNA and two possible solutions.

The concept of therapeutic cloning, proposed by Gurdon and Colman, entails the synthesis of tissues or organs for transplantation into a patient starting from embryonic stem (ES) cells that are

Inter-species therapeutic cloning: the looming problem of mitochondrial DNA and two possible solutions.

The proposal that meets both objections is to use oocytes from non-human species, and the problem with it that is highlighted by these papers, and two possible ways to avoid that problem.

Commentary on human cloning.

The rest of this article will focus on human cloning achieved via nuclear transfer, a conceptually simple procedure that has been performed only to the pre-implantation stages in humans.



Analysis of telomere lengths in cloned sheep

The development of nuclear-transfer techniques using cultured somatic cells allows animals to be produced without involving germline cells. This enables us to examine the importance of the repair of

Human therapeutic cloning

Somatic cell nuclear 'reprogramming' in livestock species is now routine in many laboratories and these techniques may soon be used to clone genetically matched cells and tissues for transplantation into patients suffering from a wide range of disorders that result from tissue loss or dysfunction.

DNA microsatellite analysis of Dolly

A more detailed microsatellite analysis, which confirms the origin of Dolly, the first animal cloned from an adult mammal, was produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer from a cell population derived from mammary tissue taken from a 6-year-old Finn Dorset ewe.

DNA fingerprinting Dolly

A DNA fingerprint analysis is carried out to determine the origin of the donor cell used in nuclear transfer, and has confirmed the authenticity of Dolly.

Gene reactivation in erythrocytes: nuclear transplantation in oocytes and eggs of Rana.

These results demonstrate that nuclei of noncycling and terminally differentiated erythrocytes contain the genes to specify tadpole development, and conditioning these nuclei in the cytoplasm of oocytes leads to a widespread reactivation of dormant genes.

Production of cloned calves following nuclear transfer with cultured adult mural granulosa cells.

Adult somatic cell nuclear transfer was used to determine the totipotent potential of cultured mural granulosa cells, obtained from a Friesian dairy cow of high genetic merit, and DNA analyses confirmed that the calves are all genetically identical to the donor cow.

Bovine oocyte cytoplasm supports development of embryos produced by nuclear transfer of somatic cell nuclei from various mammalian species.

Observations suggest that mechanisms regulating early embryonic development may be conserved among mammalian species and that bovine oocyte cytoplasm can support the introduced differentiated nucleus regardless of chromosome number, species, or age of the donor fibroblast.

Nuclear transplantation from stably transfected cultured cells of Xenopus.

The use of nuclear transplantation, as described here, provides a means of avoiding the mosaic expression of DNA or mRNA injected into Xenopus eggs, and is easier and quicker to operate than the conventional cell rupture technique.

The alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout mouse. Implications for xenotransplantation.

These mice confirm the importance of the galactose alpha(1,3)-galactose epitope in human xenoreactivity and the logic of continuing efforts to generate pigs that lack this epitope as a source of donor organs.