The fundamental characteristics of the Kurdish nationhood project in modern Iraq

  title={The fundamental characteristics of the Kurdish nationhood project in modern Iraq},
  author={A. Rafaat},
  journal={Middle Eastern Studies},
  pages={488 - 504}
  • A. Rafaat
  • Published 2016
  • Political Science
  • Middle Eastern Studies
ABSTRACT The protracted Iraqi-Kurdish conflict has plagued the country since the creation of Iraq in the 1920s. Iraqi-Kurdish relations are dominated by the clash of two contradictory nationhood projects: Kurdish and Iraqi. The Kurdish nationhood project was constructed with the perspective that the Kurds as a nation, could qualify for but is deprived of, achieving nation-state status. Based on the Kurdish project, Kurdistan and Iraq consist of two separate homelands: the Arab part of Iraq… Expand
38 Citations
Introduction: The Kurds and the Kurdish Question in the Middle East
In the past decade, the Kurdish question has re-established itself at the heart of the regional political debates at a time when the Middle East is once again engulfed in conflict and violence. OnExpand
A Struggle within a Struggle
Dark Times


The Prospects for Democracy in Iraq: challenges and opportunities
There are many challenges to the development of democracy in Iraq: the many decades of authoritarian rule; ethno-sectarian divisions; lack of security; and the hegemony of the state over the nationalExpand
Democracy and Ethno-religious Conflict in Iraq
How can an escalation of tensions between the major ethno-religious groups be avoided in a democratizing Iraq? The first section explains why and under which conditions democratization may stir up,Expand
Between Iraq and a Hard Place: The Kurdish Predicament
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, Kurds find themselves as fragmented and embattled as at the beginning of the twentieth century. They are also as restless as they were one hundred yearsExpand
Democratic governance in Iraq? Progress and peril in reforming state-society relations
This article examines the experience of the Local Governance Project (LGP) in Iraq. LGP activities include: establishment of representative councils, service delivery capacity-building, civil societyExpand
The ethnic origins of nations
Preface. Note to Maps. Maps. Introduction. 1. Are Nations Modern?. a Modernistsa and a Primordialistsa . Ethnie, Myths and Symbols. The Durability of Ethnic Communities. Part I: Ethnic Communities inExpand
Ethno-Symbolism and Nationalism: A Cultural Approach
Introduction l. Perennialism and Modernism 2. Basic Themes of Ethno-Symbolism 3. The Formation of Nations 4. The Role of Nationalism 5. Persistence and Transformation of Nations 6. Pro et Contra
Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism
or 'impersonal' state which, because of its abstract nature, could be imitated in subsequent history. This may o f course be seen as the ordinary logic o f developmental processes. I t was an earlyExpand
Ozo glu, Kurdish Notables and the Ottoman State: Evolving Identities, Competing Loyalties, and Shifting Boundaries (Albany
  • NY: State University of New York Press,
  • 2004
Mushkilet al-Mosul (The Mosul Problem) (Baghdad: Matba‘at Eshbiliya
  • 1997