The functional role of ribosomal RNA in protein synthesis

@article{Dahlberg1989TheFR,
  title={The functional role of ribosomal RNA in protein synthesis},
  author={Albert E. Dahlberg},
  journal={Cell},
  year={1989},
  volume={57},
  pages={525-529}
}
Use of mutant RNAs in studies on yeast 5S rRNA structure and function.
TLDR
Under optimized conditions more than 80% of the cell's RNA can be replaced with mutant molecules, and the use of high and low copy shuttle vectors permits a wide adjustment of the mutant RNA concentration.
Alterations in the peptidyltransferase and decoding domains of ribosomal RNA suppress mutations in the elongation factor G gene.
TLDR
A model in which EF-G promotes translocation by modulating this communication between ribosomal domains is proposed, thereby increasing the efficiency of this fundamental process.
Mutations in RNAs of both ribosomal subunits cause defects in translation termination
TLDR
This study presents the first direct in vitro evidence demonstrating the involvement of RNAs from both the large and the small ribosomal subunits in catalysis of peptidyl‐tRNA hydrolysis during termination of protein biosynthesis.
Towards Ribosomal Structure at Peptide Level: Use of Crosslinking, Antipeptide Antibodies and Limited Proteolysis
TLDR
Models of the tertiary structure of the 16S RNA have been derived from footprinting and crosslinking experiments and functionally important domains and even nucleotides were identified by affinity labelling and site-directed mutagenesis.
Crystal structure of ribosomal protein L4 shows RNA‐binding sites for ribosome incorporation and feedback control of the S10 operon
TLDR
The crystal structure of L4 from Thermotoga maritima suggests a C‐terminal protein‐binding interface, through which L4 could be interacting with protein components of the transcriptional and/or translational machineries.
Review Translational dynamics
TLDR
The elongation cycle seems to work in a highly similar way but the prokaryotic and the eukaryotic elongation factors (EF and eEF respectively) are not interchangeable.
Mutational studies on the alpha-sarcin loop of Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA.
TLDR
It is inferred that the identity of the bases at positions 2658 and 2663 are of critical importance for ribosome structure and function, and that this function cannot be restored by a second mutation which potentially restores a Watson-Crick base pair, but with reversed position.
Suppression and the code: Beyond codons and anticodons
TLDR
Experimental results are presented that bear upon codon context effects, the role of tRNA structural features in aminoacyl-tRNA selection and in codon selection, determinants of t RNA identity, elongation factor suppressor mutants, and termination codon recognition by the ribosomal RNA of the small subunit.
The Role of Ribosomal RNA in the Control of Gene Expression
TLDR
The current data on translational enhancers is summarized and the proposed sites in 16S rRNA to which they might base pair are identified to selectively enhance translation of particular mRNAs.
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References

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Mutagenesis at the mRNA decoding site in the 16S ribosomal RNA using the specialized ribosome system in Escherichia coli.
TLDR
It is concluded that some, but not all, of the nucleotides in the conserved C1400 region play a key role in translation.
Ribosomal RNA on the Surface of Ribosomes
TLDR
The data suggest that RNA may be a surface component of the ribosome and the RNA in 30S and 50S ribosomes appears more sensitive to the action of ribonuclease.
Interaction of elongation factors EF-G and EF-Tu with a conserved loop in 23S RNA
The elongation factors EF-Tu and EF-G interact with ribosomes during protein synthesis1,2: EF-Tu presents incoming aminoacyl transfer RNA to the programmed ribosome as an EF-Tu-GTP-tRNA ternary
Interaction of antibiotics with functional sites in 16S ribosomal RNA
TLDR
Chemical footprinting shows that several classes of antibiotics protect concise sets of highly conserved nucleotides in 16S ribosomal RNA when bound to ribosomes, having strong implications for the mechanism of action of these antibiotics and for the assignment of functions to specific structural features of 16S rRNA.
Antibiotic resistance mutations in 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA genes of Escherichia coli.
TLDR
DNA sequence analysis of these regions revealed that spectinomycin resistance results from a C/G to T/A transition at position 1192 of a 16S RNA gene, and alteration in 23S RNA identifies sequences important to peptidyl transfer.
Effect of point mutations in the decoding site (C1400) region of 16S ribosomal RNA on the ability of ribosomes to carry out individual steps of protein synthesis.
TLDR
It appears that while the conserved and cross-linkable C1400 is not essential for function, the adjacent conserved G1401 is, and the only modification to block all ribosomal function was the deletion of G 1401.
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