The functional replacement of the ear.

  title={The functional replacement of the ear.},
  author={Gerald E. Loeb},
  journal={Scientific American},
  volume={252 2},
  • G. Loeb
  • Published 1 February 1985
  • Medicine
  • Scientific American
Imp fan ta ble prostheses designed to deliver electrical stim u li directly to the auditory nerve hold considerable promise for people with a type * o f deafness in which the sensory hair cells of the inner ear are damaged 

Applied neural control in the 1990s

The authors describe some of the current neural prostheses and examine technological developments needed for future generations of neural prosthetic implants. Current developments include the

Multi-channel cochlear implant system

A method and system is described for electrically stimulating the auditory nerve with multiple channels of audio information. Audio information is transmitted from an external microphone to a speech

Through the looking glass: emerging horizons in rehabilitation engineering

  • C. Robinson
  • Medicine
    Proceedings of a Special Symposium on Maturing Technologies and Emerging Horizons in Biomedical Engineering.
  • 1988
These include tactile visual systems, visual cortex neuroprostheses, mobility and navigational devices, and other aids for the blind, deaf, and mute, as well as for those individuals paralyzed at least from the hip downward by spinal cord injury.

Cochlear Implant Devices for the Profoundly Hearing Impaired

  • E. Feigenbaum
  • Medicine
    IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine
  • 1987
Patients who have become deaf after developing normal language skills are most amenable to implantation since sound recognition is aided by established associations and memory.

Cylindrical Cochlear Electrode Array for Use in Humans

In vitro and in vivo tests are ongoing with good results so far and the fabrication of a flexible multichannel electrode array suitable for use in humans is described.

Experimental model for the study of changes in the organization of human sensory information processing through the design and testing of non-invasive prosthetic devices for sensory impaired people

A new method of non-invasiv e prosthetic devices for sensory impaire d people is proposed, based on the transformation of inaccessible stimulus to impaired sensor y modalities, which would enable blind and deaf people to receive information about the visual world through their auditory senses.

Early UCSF contributions to the development of multiple-channel cochlear implants


It is concluded that SSR does indeed provide a possible mechanism by which information transmission along the cochlear nerve can be improved - and thus may well lead to improved speech comprehension.

Every implanted child a star (and some other failures): Guilt and shame in the cochlear implant debates

In June 1990, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the use of cochlear implants for deaf children triggering a volatile debate between persons working within the field of communication