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Q:

The symbol acceptance radius is a deciding factor for the symbol error probability. However, 1 the bit error probability also depends on the encoding of the symbols. The symbol-encoding in Figure 2.4 is not optimal because multiple bits can flip when neighboring symbols are mixed up due to signal noise. Which kind of encoding could help to solve this problem?

A:

Gray-codes with a Hamming distance of 1 between neighboring symbols would solve this problem.

Q:

What are the advantages of differential signal transmission? Name two

A:

Higher speed since transistors don’t go into saturation (ECL)

Inherent compensation of disturbances, noise pulse on both lines and therefore not visible in the differential signal

Q:

What is an asymmetric line? Name one example for its application.

A:

The conductors share one common ground line. Coaxial lines for television.

Q:

Give the definition for the Cut-Off-Frequency.

A:

The frequency at which the signal amplitude has dropped by 3dB compared to the output value.

Q:

When converting analog signals into digital signals, what has to be considered in order to be able to achieve an unambiguous reconstruction of the signal (name and formula)?

A:

Nyquist-Shannon-Sampling theorem. fsample ≥ 2 * fmax

Q:

Which classes of signals are used as analog and digital signals? Name 4 signal classes

A:

Value- Continuous, Time- Continuous

Value- Continuous, Time- Discrete

Value- Discrete, Time- Continuous Value- Discrete, Time- Discrete

Q:

Briefly describe ASK modulation and give one disadvantage

A:

Amplitude shift keying: Linear change in amplitude, sensitive by the varying reception quality

Q:

How does the wire length affect the wave impedance ZW?

A:

It doesn’t affect the wave impedance.

Q:

Name four causes for distortions of real data signals.

A:

glitches, noise, cross talk, bad ground, reflection

Q:

How does a twisted pair cable help against interferences from external sources?

A:

Interferences affect both signal lines at the same time. When a differential signal is sent, the receiver can reconstruct the original signal by subtracting the signals from each other. Any interferences are canceled out

Q:

Is using a twisted pair cable more beneficial against interferences of small sources close to the wire or ones that are farther away? Explain your answer.

A:

Better against sources farther away. The interferences close to the wire affect the closer wire stronger than the one on the other side. The interference is therefore different. With longer distances, the interferences should even out.

Q:

How could differential signal generation be realized

A:

Emitter Coupling Logic (ECL) with twisted lines

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