Fragile X syndrome is the most common inherited form of mental disability, world-wide. Main clinical features are cognitive deficit, speech difficulties, delayed development, autism, and particular physical characteristics. The syndrome can be cytogenetically diagnosed by the expression of chromosome X fragile site at band Xq27.3. At molecular level, the cause of the syndrome is defined as an abnormal expansion of CGG trinucleotide repeats in the 5'UTR of the FMR-1 gene as well as hypermethylation at the proximal CpG island. Study of fragile X syndrome at Songklanagarind Hospital during May 1991-June 1996 was herein reported. A total of 287 blood samples of 260 unrelated families were cytogenetically examined by using lymphocyte culture method with 2-4 different treatments. Frequency of positive fragile X cases was found to be 7 in 260 (2.7%). Among relatives of the positive ones, 13 individuals were also positive. Other types of chromosome abnormalities were detected in 13 cases (5%). For molecular study, DNA samples were obtained from 97 cases. Investigation of CGG repeat expansion was performed by PCR method. Abnormal expansion was identified as full mutation (> 200 repeats) and premutation (> 50-200 repeats). The abnormalities were found in 14 individuals of 5 unrelated cases; 6 with full mutation and 8 with premutation. No molecular study on the two cytogenetic positive cases has been performed. In conclusion, a total of 50 individuals with fragile X abnormality has been documented: 18 affected cases and 32 carriers. Investigation of the remaining suspected members in positive families is in progress. The information and experience will lead to prevention of this genetic disease by prenatal diagnosis and elective abortion in Thailand.